Inversion of Meteor Rayleigh Waves on Earth and Modeling of Air Coupled Rayleigh Waves on Mars
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Meteor impacts and/or meteor events generate body and surface seismic waves on the surface of a planet. When meteoroids burst in the atmosphere, they generate shock waves that subsequently convert into acoustic waves in the atmosphere and seismic waves in the ground. This effect can be modeled as the amplitude of Rayleigh and other Spheroidal modes excitation, due to atmospheric/ground coupling effects.
First, an inversion of the seismic source of Chelyabinsk superbolide is performed. We develop an approach in order to model a line source in the atmosphere, corresponding to the consecutive generation of shock waves by the interaction with the atmosphere. The model is based on the known trajectory. We calculate the synthetic seismograms of Rayleigh waves associated with the event by the summation of normal modes of a model of the solid part and the atmosphere of the planet. Through an inversion technique based on singular value decomposition, we perform a full Rayleigh wave inversion and we provide solutions for the moment magnitude.
SEIS will likely detect seismic waves generated by impacts and the later might be further located by remote sensing differential processing. In the case of Mars, we use the same method to obtain waveforms associated with impacts on the planetary surface or in low altitudes in the Martian atmosphere. We show that the contribution of the fundamental spheroidal solid mode is dominating the waveforms, compared to that of the first two overtones. We perform an amplitude comparison and we show that small impactors (diameter of 0.5 to 2 m), can be detected by the SEIS VBB seismometer of InSight mission, even in short epicentral distances, in the higher frequencies of the Rayleigh waves. We perform an analysis based on impact rate estimations and we calculate the number of detectable events of 1 meter diameter meteor impacts to be 6.7 to 13.4 per 1 Martian year for a \(Q=500\).
KeywordsSeismology Atmosphere Mars Rayleigh waves Meteor impacts Normal modes Airbursts
The facilities of IRIS Data Services, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for access to waveforms, related metadata, and/or derived products used in this study. IRIS Data Services are funded through the Seismological Facilities for the Advancement of Geoscience and EarthScope (SAGE) Proposal of the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement EAR-1261681. Spectral Element Modeling was performed on the HPC resources of LANL. A portion of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. F. Karakostas acknowledges the financial support of the UnivEarthS Labex program at Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (ANR-10-LABX-0023 and ANR-11-IDEX-0005-02) and of the SODERN company for his Ph.D. financial support. KM research is fully supported by the Australian Government (project numbers DE180100584 and DP180100661). We thank Raphaël Garcia and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive reviews. This is IPGP contribution 3993. This is InSight contribution Number 73.
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