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Space Science Reviews

, 214:121 | Cite as

Feedstocks of the Terrestrial Planets

  • Richard W. CarlsonEmail author
  • Ramon Brasser
  • Qing-Zhu Yin
  • Mario Fischer-Gödde
  • Liping Qin
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The Solar System's Evolution Before the Moon

Abstract

The processes of planet formation in our Solar System resulted in a final product of a small number of discreet planets and planetesimals characterized by clear compositional distinctions. A key advance on this subject was provided when nucleosynthetic isotopic variability was discovered between different meteorite groups and the terrestrial planets. This information has now been coupled with theoretical models of planetesimal growth and giant planet migration to better understand the nature of the materials accumulated into the terrestrial planets. First order conclusions include that carbonaceous chondrites appear to contribute a much smaller mass fraction to the terrestrial planets than previously suspected, that gas-driven giant planet migration could have pushed volatile-rich material into the inner Solar System, and that planetesimal formation was occurring on a sufficiently rapid time scale that global melting of asteroid-sized objects was instigated by radioactive decay of 26Al. The isotopic evidence highlights the important role of enstatite chondrites, or something with their mix of nucleosynthetic components, as feedstock for the terrestrial planets. A common degree of depletion of moderately volatile elements in the terrestrial planets points to a mechanism that can effectively separate volatile and refractory elements over a spatial scale the size of the whole inner Solar System. The large variability in iron to silicon ratios between both different meteorite groups and between the terrestrial planets suggests that mechanisms that can segregate iron metal from silicate should be given greater importance in future investigations. Such processes likely include both density separation of small grains in the nebula, but also preferential impact erosion of either the mantle or core from differentiated planets/planetesimals. The latter highlights the important role for giant impacts and collisional erosion during the late stages of planet formation.

Keywords

Planet formation Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies Volatile elements Collisional erosion Grand Tack Meteorites 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Earth Life Science Institute for its hospitality and support for the Before the Moon meeting. The detailed and constructive reviews by Sean Raymond and editor Steve Mojzsis are much appreciated. RWC acknowledges support from the Carnegie Institution for Science, RB is grateful for financial support from JSPS KAKENHI (JP16K17662), MFG acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB-TRR 170, subproject B2-1), and QZY acknowledges NASA Emerging Worlds (NNX16AD34G) for support.

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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Terrestrial MagnetismCarnegie Institution for ScienceWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Earth Life Science InstituteTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Institut für Geologie und MineralogieUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  5. 5.CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and EnvironmentUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina

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