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Solar Physics

, 294:120 | Cite as

The Calibrations for the Chang’E-2 Solar X-Ray Monitor

  • Wu-Dong Dong
  • Xiaoping ZhangEmail author
  • Yong Li
  • Chi-Long Tang
  • Aoao Xu
  • Fan Zhang
Article

Abstract

The calibrations of the Solar X-ray Monitor (SXM) on the Chinese lunar mission Chang’E-2 are presented. The SXM payload uses a solid-state silicon PIN photodiode (Si-PIN) whose detection energy ranges from 0.5 keV to 10 keV. The energy resolution of SXM is 0.3 keV (FWHM) at 5.9 keV. The solar soft X-rays are collected in 976 channels every 10 seconds. The purpose of the calibrations is to specify the performance of SXM, which enables a reliable spectral analysis of the observed solar X-ray data. The characteristic lines of Fe at \({\approx}\,6.7~\mbox{keV}\) and of the Fe/Ni complex at \({\approx}\,8.0~\mbox{keV}\) are clearly determined during a solar flare. We compare the flux measured by SXM and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series and find consistent results. The preliminary results of the analysis of observed spectra are also presented. The spectra are measured with high energy and time resolutions, which provide additional information such as element abundances in the solar flare region. This information could be very valuable for studying the dynamic evolution of solar flares.

Keywords

Soft X-ray detector Calibration Chang’E-2 

Notes

Acknowledgements

With this work, we would like to pay highest tribute to the chief scientist of the X-ray spectrometers of Chang’E 1-3 missions, Professor Wang Huanyu (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), who left us recently in an academic presentation. We acknowledge the team from the Ground Application System of Lunar Exploration, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences for providing the CE2XRS data. We thank Prof. Wenxi Peng for helpful discussions on Chang’E-2 solar X-ray data. We thank Janet Machol at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center for help with GOES flux data usage. We thank Richard Schwartz and Kim Tolbert at NASA for valuable discussions and help with OSPEX usage. We also thank the reviewer for the thoughtful comments and valuable suggestions that have helped to improve this manuscript significantly. This work is supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau (Grant Nos. 048/2012/A2, 020/2014/A1, 008/2017/AFJ, 119/2017/A3, 0042/2018/A2) and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11761161001).

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Lunar and Planetary SciencesMacau University of Science and TechnologyMacauChina
  2. 2.Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced TechnologyChinese Academy of SciencesShenzhenChina

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