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Solar Physics

, 294:54 | Cite as

Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycles 23 and 24: Sun–Earth Propagation Characteristics and Consequences at the Near-Earth Region

  • M. Syed IbrahimEmail author
  • Bhuwan Joshi
  • K.-S. Cho
  • R.-S. Kim
  • Y.-J. Moon
Article

Abstract

In this article, we present a statistical study probing the relation between interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed at 1 AU and their corresponding coronal mass ejections at the near-Sun region. The work encompasses the ICME activity that occurred during Solar Cycles 23 and 24 (1996 – 2017) while presenting an overall picture of ICME events during the complete Solar Cycle 24 for the first time. The importance of this study further lies in comparing two subsets of ICMEs, i.e. magnetic clouds (MCs) and ejecta (EJ), to explore how the observed structures of ICMEs at 1 AU could be associated with the properties of CMEs during their launch at the Sun. We find that, although Solar Cycle 24 saw a significant reduction in the number of ICME events compared to the previous cycle, the fraction of MCs was much higher during Cycle 24 than Cycle 23 (60% versus 41%). In general, the ICME transit-time decreases with the increase in the CME initial speed, although a broad range of transit times were observed for a given CME speed. We also find that the high-speed ICMEs (\({\gtrsim}\,500~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\)) form a distinct group in terms of the deficit in their transit times when compared with low-speed events (\({\lesssim}\, 500~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\)), which means that high-speed ICMEs acquire a much higher internal energy from the source active regions during the initiation process that effectively overcomes the aerodynamic drag force while they transit in the interplanetary medium. The CME propagation from the Sun to the near-Earth environment shows both an overall positive and negative acceleration (i.e. deceleration), although the acceleration is limited to only low-speed CMEs that are launched with a speed comparable with or less than the mean solar wind speed (\({\approx}\, 400\,\mbox{--}\,450~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\)). Within a given cycle, the similarities of MC and EJ profiles with respect to the CME–ICME speed relation as well as interplanetary acceleration support the hypothesis that all CMEs have a flux rope structure and that the trajectory of the CMEs essentially determines the observed ICME structure at 1 AU.

Keywords

Coronal mass ejections Interplanetary coronal mass ejections Magnetic clouds Ejecta 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the catalog of “Near-Sun Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Since January 1996” compiled by Ian Richardson and Hilary Cane, which is the basis for the present study. The basic CME parameters were taken from the LASCO CME catalog. This CME catalog is generated and maintained at the CDAW Data Center by NASA and The Catholic University of America in cooperation with the Naval Research Laboratory. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. K.S.C and R.S.K acknowledge support from KASI basic research fund and the R&D program “Development of a Solar Coronagraph on the International Space Station (Project No. 2019-1-850-02) supervised by the Ministry of Science and ICT”. We sincerely thank the anonymous referee for providing constructive comments and suggestions, which have significantly enhanced the presentation and quality of the paper.

Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Research LaboratoryUdaipur Solar ObservatoryUdaipurIndia
  2. 2.Korea Astronomy and Space Science InstituteDaejeonSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Astronomy and Space ScienceUniversity of Science and TechnologyDaejeonSouth Korea
  4. 4.School of Space ResearchKyung Hee UniversityYonginSouth Korea

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