Advertisement

Solar Physics

, 294:1 | Cite as

The First Solar Seeing Profile Measurement with Two Apertures and Multiple Guide Regions

  • Deqing Ren
  • Gang ZhaoEmail author
  • Xin Wang
  • Christian Beck
  • Robert Broadfoot
Article

Abstract

Ground-based observations suffer from atmospheric turbulence perturbations, which seriously degrade the image quality. The seeing profile associated with the turbulence is critical to characterize an astronomical site. The optimal design and performance estimation of future solar ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) and multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) heavily rely on our knowledge of the seeing profile at a specific site. Many current optical seeing profile measurement techniques require one to use a large solar telescope for that purpose. The development of a portable instrument to measure and characterize the seeing profile is thus highly needed, in particular for testing potential new sites or for the regularly monitoring of the seeing condition at existing sites. Recently, we proposed the Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler (A-MASP), which uses multiple small telescopes and multiple regions of interest (ROIs) on the solar surface to measure the seeing profile up to an altitude of 30 km. Here, we report our recent proof-of-concept observation run of the A-MASP technique with the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO). We found that the Fried parameter, \(r_{0}\), was about 12 cm at the observed wavelength of 630 nm in the early morning and that there were three main turbulence layers. The strongest one was the mix layer near the ground. We observed the evolution of the top of the mix layer and found that it can rise to about 1.5 km in about 18 min, which is consistent with the theory of daytime boundary layer evolution. Another turbulence layer was observed from 8 to 15 km, which is at the top of the convective layer. Comparing an instrument with two sub-apertures with a real A-MASP instrument, we found that they should lead to similar results except for the altitude \(h = 0\).

Keywords

Turbulence Instrumentation and data management 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is being supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) under the grant AST-1607921. Our system was tested with the National Science Foundation’s Dunn Solar Telescope at Sacramento Peak operated by the National Solar Observatory. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation for the benefit of the astronomical community. We thank the anonymous referee for valuable and thoughtful comments, which significantly improved this publication.

Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Avila, R., Avilés, J.L., Wilson, R.W., Chun, M., Butterley, T., Carrasco, E.: 2008, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beckers, J.M.: 1988, Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, 2, 693. Google Scholar
  3. Beckers, J.M.: 2001, Exp. Astron. 12, 1. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckers, J., Brown, T., Collados, M., Denker, C., Hill, F., Kuhn, J., et al.: 2004, RPT-0021 Site Survey Working Group Final Report. Google Scholar
  5. Benoit, N., Thierry, F., Jean-Marc, C.: 2009, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(1), 219. DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkefeld, T., Soltau, D., Schmidt, D., von der Lühe, O.: 2010, Appl. Opt. 49(31), G155. DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butterley, T., Wilson, R.W., Sarazin, M.: 2006, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 369, 835. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collados, M., Bettonvil, F., Cavaller, L., Ermolli, I., Gelly, B., Grivel-Gelly, C., Pérez, A., Socas-Navarro, H., Soltau, D., Volkmer, R.: 2010, Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330H. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Egner, S.E., Masciadri, E.: 2007, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1441. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elmore, D.F., Rimmele, T., Casini, R., Hegwer, S., Kuhn, J., Lin, H., McMullin, J.P., Reardon, K., Schmidt, W., Tritschler, A., Wöger, F.: 2014, Proc. SPIE 9147, 914707. DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Els, S.G., Schöck, M., Riddle, R., Skidmore, W., Travouillon, T.: 2009, Optical Turbulence: Astronomy Meets Meteorology, 224. DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill, F., Collados, M.: 2003, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 35, 848. ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Kellerer, A., Gorceix, N., Marino, J., Cao, W., Goode, P.R.: 2012, Astron. Astrophys. 542, A2. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kellerer, A.: 2015, ArXiv e-prints, arXiv.
  15. Löfdahl, M.G.: 2010, Astron. Astrophys. 524, A90. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ren, D., Jolissaint, L., Zhang, X., Dou, J., Chen, R., Zhao, G., Zhu, Y.: 2015, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 127, 469. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ren, D., Zhao, G.: 2016, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128, 105002. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ren, D., Zhu, Y., Zhang, X., Dou, J., Zhao, G.: 2014, Appl. Opt. 53, 1683. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ricort, G., Aime, C., Roddier, C., Borgnino, J.: 1981, Solar Phys. 69, 223. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ricort, G., Borgnino, J., Aime, C.: 1982, Solar Phys. 75, 377. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rimmele, T.R., Radick, R.R.: 1998, P. Soc. Photo.-Opt. Ins. 3353, 72. Google Scholar
  22. Rimmele, T.R., Woeger, F., Marino, J., Richards, K., Hegwer, S., Berkefeld, T., Soltau, D., Schmidt, D., Waldmann, T.: 2010, P. Soc. Photo.-Opt. Ins. 7736, 773631. Google Scholar
  23. Rimmele, T.R., Marino, J.: 2011, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 2. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sarazin, M., Roddier, F.: 1990, Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294. ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Scharmer, G.B., van Werkhoven, T.I.M.: 2010, Astron. Astrophys. 513, A25. DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stull, R.B.: 1988, Atmospheric Sciences Library, Kluwer, Dordrecht. Google Scholar
  27. Tokovinin, A., Kornilov, V., Shatsky, N., Voziakova, O.: 2003, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 343, 891. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tokovinin, A.: 2004, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Townson, M.J., Kellerer, A., Osborn, J., Butterley, T., Morris, T., Wilson, R.W.: 2014, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91473E. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vernin, J., Munoz-Tunon, C.: 1994, Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311. ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Wilson, R.W.: 2002, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 337, 103. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics and Astronomy DepartmentCalifornia State University NorthridgeNorthridgeUSA
  2. 2.National Solar ObservatoryBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations