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Solar Physics

, 293:110 | Cite as

Effective Rigidity of a Polar Neutron Monitor for Recording Ground-Level Enhancements

  • Sergey A. Koldobskiy
  • Gennady A. Kovaltsov
  • Ilya G. Usoskin
Article

Abstract

The “effective” rigidity of a neutron monitor for a ground-level enhancement (GLE) event is defined so that the event-integrated fluence of solar energetic protons with rigidity above it is directly proportional to the integral intensity of the GLE as recorded by a polar neutron monitor, within a wide range of solar energetic-proton spectra. This provides a direct way to assess the integral fluence of a GLE event based solely on neutron-monitor data. The effective rigidity/energy was found to be 1.13 – 1.42 GV (550 – 800 MeV). A small model-dependent, systematic uncertainty in the value of the effective rigidity is caused by uncertainties in the low-energy range of the neutron-monitor yield function, which requires more detailed computations of the latter.

Keywords

Cosmic rays Solar 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence (Academy of Finland, project 272157). S.A. Koldobskiy acknowledges grant no. MK-6160.2018.2 of the President of the Russian Federation and MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (contract 02.a03.21.0005).

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Space Climate Research UnitUniversity of OuluFinland
  2. 2.National Research Nuclear University MEPhIMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Ioffe Physical-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.Sodankylä Geophysical ObservatoryUniversity of OuluFinland

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