Solar Physics

, 293:107 | Cite as

A Major Geoeffective CME from NOAA 12371: Initiation, CME–CME Interactions, and Interplanetary Consequences

  • Bhuwan JoshiEmail author
  • M. Syed Ibrahim
  • A. Shanmugaraju
  • D. Chakrabarty


In this article, we present a multi-wavelength and multi-instrument investigation of a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) from active region NOAA 12371 on 21 June 2015 that led to a major geomagnetic storm of minimum \(\mathrm{Dst} = -204\) nT. The observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory in the hot EUV channel of 94 Å confirm the CME to be associated with a coronal sigmoid that displayed an intense emission (\(T \sim6\) MK) from its core before the onset of the eruption. Multi-wavelength observations of the source active region suggest tether-cutting reconnection to be the primary triggering mechanism of the flux rope eruption. Interestingly, the flux rope eruption exhibited a two-phase evolution during which the “standard” large-scale flare reconnection process originated two composite M-class flares. The eruption of the flux rope is followed by the coronagraphic observation of a fast, halo CME with linear projected speed of 1366 km s−1. The dynamic radio spectrum in the decameter-hectometer frequency range reveals multiple continuum-like enhancements in type II radio emission which imply the interaction of the CME with other preceding slow speed CMEs in the corona within \(\approx10\) – \(90~\mbox{R} _{\odot}\). The scenario of CME–CME interaction in the corona and interplanetary medium is further confirmed by the height–time plots of the CMEs occurring during 19 – 21 June. In situ measurements of solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters at 1 AU exhibit two distinct magnetic clouds, separated by a magnetic hole. Synthesis of near-Sun observations, interplanetary radio emissions, and in situ measurements at 1 AU reveal complex processes of CME–CME interactions right from the source active region to the corona and interplanetary medium that have played a crucial role towards the large enhancement of the geoeffectiveness of the halo CME on 21 June 2015.


Coronal mass ejections Flares Magnetic reconnection CME–CME interaction Magnetic clouds 



We thank SDO, Wind/WAVES, and GONG teams for their open data policy. SDO is a NASA mission under the Living With a Star (LWS) program. The data services from CDAWeb are also thankfully acknowledged. We sincerely thank the anonymous referee for providing constructive comments and suggestions that have significantly enhanced the presentation and quality of the paper. We thank Prabir K. Mitra for help in AIA data analysis.

Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Research LaboratoryUdaipur Solar ObservatoryUdaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsArul Anandar CollegeKarumathur, MaduraiIndia
  3. 3.Space and Atmospheric Sciences DivisionPhysical Research LaboratoryAhmedabadIndia

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