Advertisement

Examining Multidimensional Poverty in Sri Lanka: Transitioning Through Post War Conflict

  • Renuka MahadevanEmail author
  • Maneka Jayasinghe
Original Research
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

This paper analyses the trend and changes in Sri Lanka’s multidimensional poverty before the ethnic war in 2007, the transition through 2009 and after the war in 2012/13. Using multiple correspondence and stochastic dominance analyses, the change in multidimensional poverty for various groups over time is considered using provincial and sectoral decompositions. Evidence shows that multidimensional poverty has declined since 2007. This is seen for war-affected and non-affected provinces as well as all ethnic groups. In particular, the after-war decline was caused by considerable improvements in the rural sector and some improvement in the urban sector but little change in the estate sector. Quantile regression analysis revealed that the war-affected Northern and Eastern provinces, and the ethnic minority of Tamils are still worse off than their counterparts after the war. To reduce multidimensional poverty, a targeted policy of priming up the peace dividend efforts comprising infrastructural development and improving employment opportunities within a coherent policy framework in the war-affected provinces should be undertaken. To address regional imbalance, improving living conditions and incomes in the estate sector in particular cannot be neglected and a public–private partnership could be effective in addressing multidimensional poverty.

Keywords

Multidimensional poverty War Multiple correspondence analysis Stochastic dominance analysis 

Notes

References

  1. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2009). Counting and multidimensional poverty. In J. Von Braun (Ed.), The poorest and Hungry: Assessment, analysis and actions. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  2. Alkire, S., Foster, J. E., Seth, S., Santos, M. E., Roche, J. M., & Ballon, P. (2015). Multidimenional poverty measurement and analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkire, S., & Santos, M. (2014). Acute multidimensional poverty: A new index for developing countries. World Development,59, 251–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angulo, R., Diaz, Y., & Pardo, R. (2016). The Colombian multidimensional poverty index: Measuring poverty in a public policy construct. Social Indicators Research,127, 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antony, G., & Visweswara Rao, K. (2007). A composite index to explain variations in poverty, health, nutritional status and standard of living: use of multivariate statistical methods. Public Health,212(8), 578–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asselin, L.-M. (2009). Analysis of multidimensional poverty: Theory and case studies. New York: International Development Research Centre, Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson, A. (1970). On the measurement of inequality. Journal of Economic Theory,2(3), 244–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beh, E., & Lombardo, R. (2014). Correspondence analysis: Theory, practice and new strategies. New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Camaron, C., & Trivedi, P. (2010). Microeconometrics using Sata. Collage Station, TX: StatCorp.Google Scholar
  10. Cappellari, L., & Jenkins, S. P. (2004). Modelling low income transitions. Journal of Applied Econometrics,19(5), 593–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidson, R., & Duclos, J. (2000). Statistical inference for stochastic dominance and for the measurement of poverty and inequality. Econometrica,68(6), 1435–1464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson, R., & Duclos, J. (2013). Testing for restricted stochastic dominance. Econometric Reviews,32(1), 84–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Silva, W. (2005). Family transition in South Asia: Provision of social services and social protection. Asia–Pacific Population Journal,20(2), 13–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Department of Census and Statistics. (2008). Household income and expenditure survey 2006/07: Final report. Colombo: Ministry of Finance and Planning.Google Scholar
  15. Department of Census and Statistics. (2011a). Household income and expenditure survey 2009/10: Final report. Colombo: Ministry of Finance and Planning.Google Scholar
  16. Department of Census and Statistics. (2011b). Enumeration of vital events 2011: Northern Province. Colombo: Ministry of Finance and Planning.Google Scholar
  17. Department of Census and Statistics. (2012). Census of Population and Housing in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Ministry of Finance and Planning.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Census and Statistics. (2015). Household income and expenditure survey 2012/13: Final report. Colombo: Ministry of Finance and Planning.Google Scholar
  19. Duclos, J., Sahn, D., & Younger, S. (2006). Robust multidimensional poverty comparisons. Economic Journal,116(514), 943–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ezzrari, A., & Verme, P. (2013). A Multiple Correspondence Analysis Approach to the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty in Morocco 2001–2007. In V. Berenger & F. Bresson (Eds.), Poverty and social exclusion around the mediterranean sea. Boston, MA: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Foster, J., & Shorrocks, E. (1988). Poverty orderings and welfare dominance. Social Choice and Welfare,5(2), 179–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenacre, M., & Blasius, J. (Eds.). (2006). Multiple correspondence analysis and related methods. New York: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Haughton, J., & Khandker, S. (2009). Handbook on poverty and inequality (English). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  24. Howes, S. (1993). Restricted stochastic dominance: A feasible approach to distributional analysis. Unpublished article, STICERD, London School of Economics.Google Scholar
  25. Iniguez-Montiel, A. (2014). Growth with equity for the development of Mexico: Poverty, inequality, and economic growth (1992–2008). World Development,59, 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Islam, A., Ouch, S., Smyth, R., & Wang, L. (2016). The long-term effects of Civil Conflicts on Education, earnings, and Fertility: Evidence from Cambodia. Journal of Comparative Economics,44, 800–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jayasinghe, M., Smith, Christine, Chai, Andreas, & Ratnasiri, Shyama. (2016). The implications of income dependent equivalence scales for measuring poverty in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Social Economics,43(12), 1300–1314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koenker, R., & Bassett, G. (1978). Regression quantiles. Econometrica,46, 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li, G., Cai, Z., Liu, J., Su, X., Huang, X., & Li, B. (2019). Multidimensional poverty in rural China: Indicators, spatiotemporal patterns and applications. Social Indicators Research,144, 1099–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maggino, F. (Ed.). (2017). Complexity in society: From indicators construction to their synthesis, social indicators research series. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Mahadevan, R., & Hoang, V. (2016). The nexus between poverty and deprivation in Vietnam. Journal of Policy Modeling,38(2), 290–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mahadevan, R., & Suardi, S. (2014). Regional differences pose challenges for food security policy: A case study of India. Regional Studies,48(8), 1319–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Milazzo, A., & De Walle, Van. (2017). Women left behind? Poverty and headship in Africa. Demography,53(3), 1119–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nanayakkara, W. (2012). Multidimensional poverty index: A new way of assessing poverty in Sri Lanka. In Talking economics. Colombo: Institute of Policy Studies. Retrieved November 11, 2018 from http://www.ips.lk/talkingeconomics/2012/06/10/understanding-poverty-in-sri-lanka-does-the-multidimensional-poverty-index-hold-the-key/.
  35. Njong, A. M., & Ningaye, P. (2008). Characterizing weights in the measurement of multidimensional poverty: An application of data-driven approaches to cameroonian data. OPHI Working Paper No. 21, Univseristy of Oxford.Google Scholar
  36. Ntsalaze, L., & Ikhide, S. (2018). Rethinking dimensions: The South African multidimensional poverty index. Social Indicators Research,135(1), 195–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pasha, A. (2017). Regional perspectives on the multidimensional poverty index. World Development,94, 268–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pattanaik, P., & Xu, Y. (2018). On measuring multidimensional deprivation. Journal of Economic Literature,56(2), 657–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Phan, P., & O’Brien, M. (2019). Multidimensional wellbeing inequality in a developing country: A case study of Vietnam. Social Indicators Research,145, 157–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ranathunga, S. (2018). A poverty focused policies in post-independent Sri Lanka: A review of literature. Global Scientifc Journals,6(4), 141–159.Google Scholar
  41. Ravallion, M. (1994). Poverty comparisons. Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Ravallion, M., & Huppi, M. (1991). Measuring changes in poverty: A methodological case study of indonesia during an adjustment period. World Bank Economic Review,5(1), 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sen, A. (2000). A decade of human development. Journal of Human Development,1, 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Subramanian, Shankar, & Deaton, Angus. (1996). The demand for food and calories. Journal of Political Economy,104(1), 133–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. World Bank. (2014). Public-private partnerships: Reference guide version 2.0. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  46. World Bank. (2016). Sri Lanka poverty and welfare: Recent progress and remaining challenges. World Bank’s Poverty and Equity Global Practice.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EconomicsThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.College of Business and LawCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia

Personalised recommendations