A New Dataset on Horizontal Structural Ethnic Inequalities in Thailand in Order to Address Sustainable Development Goal 10
- 133 Downloads
Thailand is the world’s fourth most unequal country by wealth, but past research on this phenomenon has mainly been along individual or geographic lines as the census is insufficiently detailed to provide ethnic-based measures. This article introduces an innovative methodological solution to measure horizontal inequality in countries where the census excludes ethnicity. We investigate the roots of a structural ‘ethnic penalty’ by contextualising in some detail an ethnic gap in Thai public policies concerning poverty and inequality. Then, using data from the United Nations Development Programme’s ‘Human Achievement Index’ for Thailand, the Thai Office of the National Culture Commission’s Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand report, and Thai National Statistical Office population and poverty data, we compile the country’s first dataset on horizontal (between-group) inequality by ethnicity. Employing this novel approach, we then examine the eight sectors in the Human Achievement Index: health, education, employment, income, housing and living environment, transport and communication, family and community life, and participation. Describing how Thailand’s major ethnic groups fare in each sector and comparing inequality amongst sectors, this ethnolinguistics-based approach provides evidence of a significant ‘ethnic penalty’ in Thailand and makes initial recommendations for addressing the issue.
KeywordsEthnic penalty Human development Inequality Poverty Southeast Asia Thailand
The authors wish to acknowledge a grant of 4400 USD via Grant No. 14/2560 from the Research Group on Local Affairs Administration, College of Local Administration, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, for the research and article writing, and the assistance of Dr. Jay Goodliffe of the Department of Political Science of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Brigham Young University for advice on ecological inferencing methodology. All and any errors are the authors’ own.
- Achavanuntakul, S., Rakkiattiwong, N., & Direkudomsak, W. (2016). Inequality, the capital market, and political stocks. In P. Phongpaichit & C. Baker (Eds.), Unequal Thailand (pp. 55–72). Singapore: NUS Press.Google Scholar
- Albritton, R. B., & Bureekul, T. (2002). Civil society and the consolidation of democracy in Thailand. Paper presented at the Paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Savannah, GA.Google Scholar
- Barry, C. (2013). Rights to culture: An introduction. In C. Barry (Ed.), Rights to culture: Heritage, language, and community in Thailand. Silkworm: Chiang Mai.Google Scholar
- Breazeale, K. (1975). The integration of the Lao states into the Thai kingdom. PhD diss., University of Oxford.Google Scholar
- Buadeng, K. (2006). The rise and fall of the Tribal Research Institute (TRI). Southeast Asian Studies, 44(3), 359–384.Google Scholar
- Campbell, C. (2014). If there’s going to be a Thai civil war, Isaan will be its front line. Time. http://time.com/2948172/thailand-isaan-province-identity/. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Council of State. (1997). Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok: Council of State. http://www.khamkoo.com/uploads/9/0/0/4/9004485/the_constitution_of_the_kingdom_of_thailand_be2540-1997_-_eng.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Council of State. (2007). Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok: Council of State. http://web.krisdika.go.th/data/outsitedata/outsite21/file/Constitution_of_the_Kingdom_of_Thailand.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Council of State. (2017). Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok: Council of State. http://www.krisdika.go.th/wps/wcm/connect/d230f08040ee034ca306af7292cbe309/Constitution_of_the_Kingdom_of_Thailand_%28B.E._2560_%282017%29%29.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=d230f08040ee034ca306af7292cbe309. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Credit Suisse. (2018). Global wealth data book 2018. Zurich: Credit Suisse Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Draper, J. (2012). Revisiting English in Thailand. The Asian EFL Journal, 14(4), 9–38.Google Scholar
- Draper, J. (2019). Language education policy in Thailand. In A. Kirkpatrick, & A. J. Liddicoat (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of language education policy in Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Grabowsky, V. (1996). The Thai census of 1904: Translation and analysis. Journal of the Siam Society, 84(1), 49–87.Google Scholar
- Hasmath, R. (2012). The ethnic penalty: Immigration, education and the labour market. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Hoang, T. V. (2016). 10 year summary report of the coalition of cities against discrimination. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok.Google Scholar
- Kemasingki, P., & Tananchai, T. (2017). What is Lanna? How Lanna became the identity and brand it is today. Chiang Mai Citylife. http://www.chiangmaicitylife.com/citylife-articles/what-is-lanna-how-lanna-became-the-identity-and-brand-it-is-today/. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Keyes, C. F. (2014). Finding their voice: Northeastern villagers and the Thai state. Chiang Mai: Silkworm.Google Scholar
- Laovakul, D. (2016). Concentration of land and other wealth in Thailand. In P. Phongpaichit & C. Baker (Eds.), Unequal Thailand (pp. 32–42). Singapore: NUS Press.Google Scholar
- Lathapipat, D. (2016). Inequality in education and wages. In P. Phongpaichit & C. Baker (Eds.), Unequal Thailand (pp. 43–54). Singapore: NUS Press.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (2008). Basic education core curriculum. Bangkok: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand. (2015). Statement by Prime Minister at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit 2015. Bangkok: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2015. http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/media-center/28/60617-Statement-by-Prime-Minister-at-the-United-Nations.html. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). (1997). The eighth national socio-economic development plan. Bangkok: NESDB.Google Scholar
- Nawarat, N. (2010). Reconstructing gender identity for political participation: Hill Tribe women in Northern Thailand. Asien, 114(115), 33–49.Google Scholar
- NESDB. (2011). The eleventh national socio-economic development plan. Bangkok: NESDB.Google Scholar
- NESDB. (2017). The twelfth national socio-economic development plan. Bangkok: NESDB.Google Scholar
- NESDB & World Bank. (2005). Thailand: Northeast economic development report. Bangkok: NESDB.Google Scholar
- NSO, National Health Security Office, UNICEF. (2016). Thailand: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2015–2016, final report. Bangkok: NSO, National Health Security Office, UNICEF.Google Scholar
- NSO, UNICEF, Ministry of Public Health, National Health Security Office, Thai Health Promotion Foundation, & International Health Policy Program. (2013). Thailand: Multiple Indicator Survey 2012. Bangkok: NSO, UNICEF, Ministry of Public Health, National Health Security Office, Thai Health Promotion Foundation, & International Health Policy Program. http://www.unicef.org/thailand/57-05-011-MICS_EN.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Office of the National Culture Commission. (2004). Ethnolinguistic maps of Thailand (in Thai). Bangkok: Office of the National Culture Commission. http://www.newmandala.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Thailand-Ethnolinguistic-Maps.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2013). Structural policy country notes: Thailand. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/dev/asia-pacific/Thailand.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Paddock, R. C. (2016). Network led by one individual carried out bombings, Thai official says. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/15/world/asia/thailand-bombings-police-investigation.html. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Phongpaichit, P., & Baker, C. (2016). Introduction: Inequality and oligarchy. In P. Phongpaichit & C. Baker (Eds.), Unequal Thailand (pp. 1–31). Singapore: NUS Press.Google Scholar
- Phongpaichit, P., & Benyaapikul, P. (2013). Social and political aspects of a middle income trap. Bangkok: Asia Foundation.Google Scholar
- Prasartpornsirichoke, J., & Takahashi, Y. (2013). Assessing inequalities in Thai education. IDEC DP2 Series, 3(2), 1–16. http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/files/public/34542/2014101620264954032/IDEC-DP2_03-2.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Rattanakrajangsri, K. (2011). Thailand. In K. Wessendorf (Ed.), The indigenous world 2011 (pp. 288–295). Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.Google Scholar
- Riley, P. (2007). Language, culture and identity: An ethnolinguistic perspective. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Royal Thai Government. (2011). Committee on the elimination of racial discrimination. Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention. First to third periodic reports of States parties due in 2008: Thailand. Bangkok: Thai Ministry of Justice, Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion. http://www.rlpd.go.th/rlpdnew/images/rlpd_1/HRC/CERD%201-3.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- Scott, J. C. (2009). The art of not being governed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Selway, J. (2016). The salience of regional identity in Thailand’s north: Causes and consequences. San Diego, CA: Annual Meeting of the Western Political Science Association.Google Scholar
- Selway, J., & Draper, J. (2018). Dataset on ethnic human achievement indicators (HAI) in Thailand-Ethnic inequalities in education, health, and other areas of human development. https://doi.org/10.7910/dvn/qy7lal.
- Stewart, F. (2002). Horizontal inequalities: A neglected dimension of development. In UNU-WIDER (Ed.), Wider perspectives on global development (pp. 101–135). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Stewart, F. (2016). Horizontal inequalities and conflict: Understanding group violence in multiethnic societies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Stewart, F., Brown, G., & Mancini, L. (2005). Why horizontal inequalities matter: Some implications for measurement. Oxford: Centre of Research on Inequality, Human Security, and Ethnicity.Google Scholar
- Streckfuss, D. (1993). The mixed colonial legacy in Siam: Origins of Thai racialist thought, 1890–1910. In L. J. Sears & J. Smail (Eds.), Autonomous histories, particular truths (pp. 123–153). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Center for Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2009). Thailand human development report 2009. Bangkok: UNDP.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2018). Goal 10 targets. http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-10-reduced-inequalities/targets/. Accessed 1 Jan 2018.
- Unger, D. (1998). Building social capital in Thailand: Fibers, finance and infrastructure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Vang, M. (2008). Political participation of the Hmong in Thailand. PhD diss., Mahidol University.Google Scholar
- West, B. A. (2012). Encyclopedia of the peoples of Asia and Oceania. New York, NY: Facts on file.Google Scholar
- Wheeler, M. (2016). Can Thailand really hide a rebellion? New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/23/opinion/can-thailand-really-hide-a-rebellion.html. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2018). About Thailand. Bangkok: UNDP. http://www.th.undp.org/content/thailand/en/home/countryinfo.html. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- World Bank. (2012) Overview. Public Expenditure Review (PER). Washington, DC: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/993671468118138134/Overview. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
- World Bank Group. (2017). Population, total [Thailand]. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=TH. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.