Advertisement

Preschool Child Care and Child Well-Being in Germany: Does the Migrant Experience Differ?

  • Micha KaiserEmail author
  • Jan M. Bauer
Original Research
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policy-makers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It specifically examines differences in outcomes based on child socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant children, however, the outcomes indicate a positive relation. These results remain robust after controlling for selection into child care on observables and using an instrumental variable approach to address potential endogeneity.

Keywords

Child care Migrants Preschool Well-being Education inequality 

JEL Classification

J13 J15 I28 

Notes

References

  1. Angrist, J. D., & Pischke, J. S. (2008). Mostly harmless econometrics: An empiricist’s companion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baum, C. F., & Schaffer, M. E. (2012). IVREG2H: Stata module to perform instrumental variables estimation using heteroskedasticity-based instruments. In: Statistical software components S457555. Boston College Department of Economics. https://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s457555.html. Revised 18 Feb 2018.
  3. Belsky, J. (2006). Early child care and early child development: Major findings of the NICHD study of early child care. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 95–110.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405620600557755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blau, D. M. (1999). The effect of pregnancy intention on child development. The Journal of Human Resources, 34(4), 786–822.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2648098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bullinger, M., Brütt, A. L., Erhart, M., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2008). Psychometric properties of the KINDL-R questionnaire: Results of the BELLA study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17(SUPPL. 1), 125–132.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-008-1014-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burger, K. (2010). How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Care, E. C., & Development, C. (2002). Early child care and children’s development prior to school entry: Results from the NICHD study of early child care. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 133–164.  https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312039001133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cornelissen, T., Dustmann, C., Raute, A., & Schönberg, U. (2018). Who benefits from universal child care? Estimating marginal returns to early child care attendance. Journal of Political Economy, 126(6), 2356–2409.  https://doi.org/10.1086/699979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crosnoe, R. (2007). Early child care and the school readiness of children from Mexican immigrant families. International Migration Review, 41(1), 152–181.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2007.00060.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cryan, J. R., Sheehan, R., Wiechel, J., & Bandy-Hedden, I. G. (1992). Success outcomes of full-day kindergarten: More positive behavior and increased achievement in the years after. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7(2), 187–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-2006(92)90004-I.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Datta Gupta, N., & Simonsen, M. (2010). Non-cognitive child outcomes and universal high quality child care. Journal of Public Economics, 94(1–2), 30–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dhuey, E. (2011). Who benefits from kindergarten? Evidence from the introduction of state subsidization. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(1), 3–22.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373711398125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Driessen, G. W. J. M. (2004). A large-scale longitudinal study of the utilization and effects of early childhood education and care in The Netherlands. Early Child Development and Care, 174(7–8), 667–689.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443042000187158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Erhart, M., Ellert, U., Kurth, B.-M., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2009). Measuring adolescents’ HRQoL via self reports and parent proxy reports: An evaluation of the psychometric properties of both versions of the KINDL-R instrument. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7, 77.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-7-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evers, A., Lewis, J., & Riedel, B. (2005). Developing child-care provision in England and Germany: Problems of governance. Journal of European Social Policy, 15(3), 195–209.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928705054082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Felfe, C., & Huber, M. (2017). Does preschool boost the development of minority children?: The case of Roma children. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A: Statistics in Society, 180(2), 475–502.  https://doi.org/10.1111/rssa.12207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Felfe, C., & Lalive, R. (2018). Does early child care help or hurt children’s development? Journal of Public Economics, 159, 33–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2018.01.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Felfe, C., Nollenberger, N., & Rodríguez-Planas, N. (2015). Can’t buy mommy’s love? Universal childcare and children’s long-term cognitive development. Journal of Population Economics, 28(2), 393–422.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-014-0532-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Havnes, B. T., & Mogstad, M. (2011). No child left behind: Subsidized child care and children’s long-run outcomes. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3(2), 97–129.  https://doi.org/10.1257/pol.3.2.97.Google Scholar
  20. Havnes, T., & Mogstad, M. (2015). Is universal child care leveling the playing field? Journal of Public Economics, 127, 100–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2014.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hemmerling, A. (2007). Der Kindergarten als Bildungsinstitution: Hintergründe und Perspektiven. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  22. Kurth, B., Kamtsiuris, P., Hölling, H., Schlaud, M., Dölle, R., Ellert, U., et al. (2006). The challenge of comprehensively mapping children’s health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study. BMC Public Health, 8, 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-196.Google Scholar
  23. Lewbel, A. (2012). Using heteroscedasticity to identify and estimate mismeasured and endogenous regressor models. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 30(1), 67–80.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07350015.2012.643126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewbel, A. (2018). Identification and estimation using heteroscedasticity without instruments: The binary endogenous regressor case. Economics Letters, 165, 10–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2018.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loeb, S., Bridges, M., Bassok, D., Fuller, B., & Rumberger, R. W. (2007). How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers on children’s social and cognitive development. Economics of Education Review, 26(1), 52–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2005.11.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Magnuson, K., Lahaie, C., & Waldfogel, J. (2006). Preschool and school readiness of children of immigrants. Social Science Quarterly, 87(5), 1241–1262.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00426.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Magnuson, K. A., Ruhm, C., & Waldfogel, J. (2007). Does prekindergarten improve school preparation and performance? Economics of Education Review, 26(1), 33–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2005.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meurs, M. (2006). Decline in pre-school use in post-socialist societies: The case of Bulgaria. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(2), 155–166.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928706062504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Early Child Care Research Network. (2003). Does amount of time spent in child care predict socioemotional adjustment during the transition to kindergarten? Child Development, 74(4), 976–1005.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2001). Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD study of early child care. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(5), 457–492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(01)00092-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. NICHD Early Child Care ResearchNetwork. (2004). Type of child care and children’s development at 54 months. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(2), 203–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2004.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Obeng, C. S. (2007). Immigrants families and childcare preferences: Do immigrants’ cultures influence their childcare decisions? Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(4), 259–264.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-006-0132-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Burchinal, M. R., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M. L., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., et al. (2001). The relation of preschool child-care quality to children’s cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. Child Development, 72(5), 1534–1553.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ravens-Sieberer, U., & Bullinger, M. (2000). KINDL R English Manual. Questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents revised version. Germany: KINDL.Google Scholar
  35. Schenk, L., Ellert, U., & Neuhauser, H. (2007). Children and adolescents in Germany with a migration background. Methodical aspects in the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz, 50(5–6), 590–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schlack, R., Hölling, H., & Kurth, B. M. (2007). Inanspruchnahme außerfamiliärer vorschulischer Kindertagesbetreuung und Einfluss auf Merkmale psychischer Gesundheit bei Kindern. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 50(10), 1249–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schober, P. S., & Schmitt, C. (2017). Day-care availability, maternal employment, and satisfaction of parents: Evidence from cultural and policy variations in Germany. Journal of European Social Policy.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928716688264.Google Scholar
  38. Spieß, C. K. (2012). Betreuungsgeld widerspricht den Zielen nachhaltiger Familienpolitik. DIW-Wochenbericht, 79(24), 24.Google Scholar
  39. Spiess, C. K., Büchel, F., & Wagner, G. G. (2003). Children’s school placement in germany: Does Kindergarten attendance matter? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18(2), 255–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(03)00023-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Statistisches Bundesamt. (2012). Kindertagesbetreuung in Deutschland 2012. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis).Google Scholar
  41. Statistisches Bundesamt. (2017). Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund—Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2010—hochgerechnet auf Basis des Zensus 2011, Sonderausgabe der Fachserie 1 Reihe 2.2—2010. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis). https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/Bevoelkerung/MigrationIntegration/MigrationshintergrundSonderausgabe5122121109004.pdf?
  42. Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2009). Pre-kindergarten child care and behavioral outcomes among children of immigrants. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(4), 432–444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.07.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vandell, D. L., Belsky, J., Burchinal, M., Steinberg, L., & Vandergrift, N. (2010). Do effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child Development, 81(3), 737–756.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01431.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Votruba-Drzal, E., Li-Grining, C. P., & Maldonado-Carreo, C. (2008). A developmental perspective on full- versus part-day kindergarten and childrens academic trajectories through fifth grade. Child Development, 79(4), 957–978.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01170.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Winkler, J., & Stolzenberg, H. (1999). Der Sozialschichtindex im Bundes-Gesundheitssurvey. Gesundheitswesen, 61(2), 178–183.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Health Care & Public ManagementUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Center for Consumer, Markets and PoliticsZeppelin UniversityFriedrichshafenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Management, Society and CommunicationCopenhagen Business SchoolFrederiksbergDenmark

Personalised recommendations