Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 142, Issue 1, pp 363–385 | Cite as

Linking Food Security with Household’s Adaptive Capacity and Drought Risk: Implications for Sustainable Rural Development

  • Anu Susan SamEmail author
  • Azhar Abbas
  • Subash Surendran Padmaja
  • Harald Kaechele
  • Ranjit Kumar
  • Klaus Müller
Article

Abstract

In spite of green revolution and rapid economic growth, India’s vast population still suffers from hunger and poverty, especially in the rural areas. Moreover, drought adversely affects India’s economy by declining agricultural production and purchasing power. It also escalates rural unemployment which ultimately affects household food security. Our study investigated the food security of drought prone rural households in a broader context by linking the dimensions of food security with dimensions of climate change vulnerability. We used the primary data of 157 drought prone rural households of Odisha state in India for analysis. This study employed polychoric principal component analysis to construct an aggregate food security index. An ordered probit model was used to estimate the determinants of food security. The FSI showed that three-fourth of the respondents were facing food security issues with varying degrees. The estimates of ordered probit model indicated that joint family, education, migration and health insurance are key variables that determine food security, whereas drought adversely affected food security of rural households. Overarching strategies are required to effectively address food security issues in the wake of increased drought risk. This study provides an insight for policy makers in India and in similar south Asian countries who must consider food security in the light of drought.

Keywords

Availability Access Exposure Sensitivity Stability Utility Vulnerability 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for financial support for this research. We would also like to thank Stiftung Fiat Panis for their financial support during data collection. We are also grateful to Nagesh Barik of CIFA, Odisha for the help and support provided during data collection. We honour the contribution of people in the research site for their responses and support during the data collection. We are also very grateful to the reviewers who provided invaluable comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Adger, W. N., Kelly, P. M., Winkels, A., Huy, L. Q., & Locke, C. (2002). Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(4), 358–366.Google Scholar
  2. Ajibade, I., & McBean, G. (2014). Climate extremes and housing rights: A political ecology of impacts, early warning and adaptation constraints in Lagos slum communities. Geoforum, 55, 76–86.Google Scholar
  3. Alexandri, C., Luca, L., & Kevorchian, C. (2015). Subsistence economy and food security—The case of rural households from Romania. Procedia Economics and Finance, 22, 672–680.Google Scholar
  4. Angelos, J., Arens, A., Johnson, H., Cadriel, J., & Osburn, B. (2016). One health in food safety and security education: A curricular framework. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 44, 29–33.Google Scholar
  5. Antony, G. M., & Rao, K. V. (2007). A composite index to explain variations in poverty, health, nutritional status and standard of living: Use of multivariate statistical methods. Public Health, 121(8), 578–587.Google Scholar
  6. Azeem, M. M., Mugera, A. W., & Schilizzi, S. (2016). Living on the edge: Household vulnerability to food-insecurity in the Punjab, Pakistan. Food Policy, 64, 1–13.Google Scholar
  7. Bashir, M. K., & Schilizzi, S. (2013). Is food security measurement sensitive to its definition and measurement method? CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 8(35), 1–9.Google Scholar
  8. Berry, H. L., Bowen, K., & Kjellstrom, T. (2010). Climate change and mental health: A causal pathways framework. International Journal Public Health, 55(2), 123–132.Google Scholar
  9. Birkmann, J., Cardona, O. D., Carreño, M. L., Barbat, A. H., Pelling, M., Schneiderbauer, S., et al. (2013). Framing vulnerability, risk and societal responses: The MOVE framework. Natural Hazards, 67(2), 193–211.Google Scholar
  10. Carletto, C., Zezza, A., & Banerjee, R. (2013). Towards better measurement of household food security: Harmonizing indicators and the role of household surveys. Global Food Security, 2, 30–40.Google Scholar
  11. Carter, K. N., Kruse, K., Blakely, T., & Collings, S. (2011). The association of food security with psychological distress in New Zealand and any gender differences. Social Science and Medicine, 72, 1463–1471.Google Scholar
  12. Coates, J., Frongillo, E. A., Rogers, B. L., Webb, P., Wilde, P. E., & Houser, R. (2006). Commonalities in the experience of household food insecurity across cultures: What are measures missing? Journal of Nutrition, 136(5), 1438S–1448S.Google Scholar
  13. CRED. (2016). India country profile of natural disasters. EM-DAT: The International Disaster Database. http://www.emdat.be/database. Accessed March 25, 2016.
  14. Devereux, S. (2001). Livelihood insecurity and social protection: A re-emerging issue in rural development. Development Policy Review, 19(4), 507–519.Google Scholar
  15. Devereux, S. (2007). The impact of droughts and floods on food security and policy options to alleviate negative effects. Agricultural Economics, 37, 47–58.Google Scholar
  16. Dong, F., Mitchell, P. D., & Colquhoun, J. (2015). Measuring farm sustainability using data envelope analysis with principal components: The case of Wisconsin cranberry. Journal of Environmental Management, 147, 175–183.Google Scholar
  17. Edame, G. E., Ekpenyong, A., Fonta, W. M., & Duru, E. (2011). Climate change, food security and agricultural productivity in Africa: Issues and policy directions. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(21), 205–223.Google Scholar
  18. Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. FAO. (1996). Rome declaration on world food security and world food summit plan of action. In World food summit, November 13–17, 1996. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  20. FAO. (1997). Agriculture food and nutrition for Africa—A resource book for teachers of agriculture. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  21. FAO. (2002). The state of food insecurity in the world 2001. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  22. FAO. (2005). FAO and the challenges of the millennium development goals: The road ahead. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  23. FAO. (2006). Food security. Policy brief, Issue 2. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  24. FAO. (2013). The state of food insecurity in the world 2013. The multiple dimensions of food security. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  25. FAO. (2015). The state of food insecurity in the world 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  26. Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. (2001). Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data—Or tears: An application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography, 38(1), 115.Google Scholar
  27. Flores, G., Krishnakumar, J., O’Donnell, O., & van Doorslaer, E. (2008). Coping with health-care costs: Implications for the measurement of catastrophic expenditures and poverty. Health Economics, 17(12), 1393–1412.Google Scholar
  28. Frelat, R., Lopez-Ridaura, S., Giller, K. E., Herrero, M., Douxchamps, S., Djurfeldt, A. A., et al. (2016). Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(2), 458–463.Google Scholar
  29. Friel, S., Berry, H., Dinh, H., O’Brien, L., & Walls, H. L. (2014). The impact of drought on the association between food security and mental health in a nationally representative Australian sample. BMC Public Health, 14, 1102.Google Scholar
  30. Gartaula, H., Niehof, A., & Visser, L. (2012). Shifting perceptions of food security and land in the context of labour out-migration in rural Nepal. Food Security, 4(2), 181–194.Google Scholar
  31. Gertler, P., & Gruber, J. (2002). Insuring consumption against illness. American Economic Review, 92(1), 51–70.Google Scholar
  32. Government of India. (2005). National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. New Delhi: Ministry of Law and Justice.Google Scholar
  33. Government of Odisha. (2013). Disaster management plan for Odisha, (Agriculture Sector). Odisha: Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  34. Government of Odisha. (2015). Odisha economic survey 2014–15. Odisha: Planning and Coordination Department, Directorate of Economics and Statistics.Google Scholar
  35. Greene, W. H. (2000). Econometric analysis (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  36. Griffiths, P., Matthews, Z., & Hinde, A. (2002). Gender, family and the nutritional status of children in three culturally contrasting states of India. Social Science and Medicine, 55(5), 775–790.Google Scholar
  37. Gupta, P., Singh, K., Seth, V., Agarwal, S., & Mathur, P. (2015). Coping strategies adopted by households to prevent food insecurity in urban slums of Delhi, India. Journal of Food Security, 3(1), 6–10.Google Scholar
  38. Huang, J., Kim, Y., & Birkenmaier, J. (2016). Unemployment and household food hardship in the economic recession. Public Health Nutrition, 19(3), 511–519.Google Scholar
  39. IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden, P. J., & Hanson, C. E. (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Jha, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Gaiha, R., & Shankar, S. (2009). “Capture” of anti-poverty programs: An analysis of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Program in India. Journal of Asian Economics, 20(4), 456–464.Google Scholar
  41. Jülich, S. (2011). Drought triggered temporary migration in an East Indian village. International Migration, 49, e189–e199.Google Scholar
  42. Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141–151.Google Scholar
  43. Kaiser, L., Chaidez, V., Algert, S., Horowitz, M., Martin, A., Mendoza, C., et al. (2015). Food resource management education with snap participation improves food security. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(4), 374–378.Google Scholar
  44. Kamo, Y. (2000). Racial and ethnic differences in extended family households. Sociological Perspectives, 43, 211–229.Google Scholar
  45. Kumar, A., & Sharma, P. (2013). Impact of climate variation on agricultural productivity and food security in rural India. Economics discussion papers, no. 2013-43, Kiel Institute for the World Economy. http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/discussionpapers/2013-43. Accessed September 17, 2016.
  46. Kumar, R., Surjit, V., Bantilan, C., Lagesh, M. A., & Yadav, U. S. (2015). Truncated access to institutional agricultural credit as a major constraint for rural transformation: Insights from longitudinal village studies. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 28(2015), 137–150.Google Scholar
  47. Li, Q., Amjath-Babu, T., Zander, P., Liu, Z., & Müller, K. (2016). Sustainability of smallholder agriculture in semi-arid areas under land set-aside programs: A case study from China’s Loess plateau. Sustainability, 8(4), 395.Google Scholar
  48. Li, Y., & Yu, W. (2010). Households food security in poverty-stricken regions: Evidence from western rural China. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 1, 386–395.Google Scholar
  49. Mahapatra, S. (2007). Livelihood pattern of agricultural labour households in rural India: Evidence from Orissa. South Asia Research, 27(1), 79–103.Google Scholar
  50. Mertens, F., Fillion, M., Saint-Charles, J., Mongeau, P., Távora, R., Sousa Passos, C. J., et al. (2015). The role of strong-tie social networks in mediating food security of fish resources by a traditional riverine community in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecology and Society, 20(3), 18.Google Scholar
  51. Mishra, S. S., & Nagarajan, R. (2011). Spatio-temporal drought assessment in Tel river basin using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and GIS. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 2(1), 79–93.Google Scholar
  52. Mottaleb, K. A., Gumma, M. K., Mishra, A. K., & Mohanty, S. (2015). Quantifying production losses due to drought and submergence of rainfed rice at the household level using remotely sensed MODIS data. Agricultural Systems, 137, 227–235.Google Scholar
  53. Mutabazi, K. D., Amjath-Babu, T. S., & Sieber, S. (2015). Influence of livelihood resources on adaptive strategies to enhance climatic resilience of farm households in Morogoro, Tanzania: An indicator-based analysis. Regional Environmental Change, 15(7), 1259–1268.Google Scholar
  54. Narayanan, S. (2015). Food security in India: The imperative and its challenges. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 2(1), 197–209.Google Scholar
  55. Norhasmah, S., Jr., Zalilah, M. S., Mohd Nasir, M. T., Kandiah, M., & Asnarulkhadi, A. S. (2010). A qualitative study on coping strategies among women from food insecurity households in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 16(1), 39–54.Google Scholar
  56. Osawe, O. W. (2013). Livelihood vulnerability and migration decision making nexus: The case of rural farm households in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 16(5), 22–34.Google Scholar
  57. Osorio, A. M., Bolancé, C., & Alcañiz, M. (2013). Measuring intermediary determinants of early childhood health: A composite index comparing Colombian departments. Child Indicators Research, 6(2), 297–319.Google Scholar
  58. Pangaribowo, E. H., Gerber, N., & Torero, M. (2013). Food and nutrition security indicators: A review. Food secure working paper 04. http://www.foodsecure.eu/PublicationDetail.aspx?id=13. Accessed March 31, 2016.
  59. Paul, K. N., Hamdiyah, A., & Samuel, A. D. (2014). Food expenditure and household welfare in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science, 8(3), 164–175.Google Scholar
  60. Pellissery, S., & Jalan, S. K. (2011). Towards transformative social protection: A gendered analysis of the Employment Guarantee Act of India (MGNREGA). Gender & Development, 19(2), 283–294.Google Scholar
  61. Pérez-Escamilla, R., & Segall-Corrêa, A. M. (2008). Food insecurity measurement and indicators. Revista de Nutrição, 21, 15s–26s.Google Scholar
  62. Porter, G. (2003). NGOs and poverty reduction in a globalizing world: Perspectives from Ghana. Progress in Development Studies, 3(2), 131–145.Google Scholar
  63. Rai, R. K., Kumar, S., Sekher, M., Pritchard, B., & Rammohan, A. (2015). A life-cycle approach to food and nutrition security in India. Public Health Nutrition, 18(5), 944–949.Google Scholar
  64. Reid, P., & Vogel, C. (2006). Living and responding to multiple stressors in South Africa-Glimpses from KwaZulu-Natal. Global Environmental Change, 16(2), 195–206.Google Scholar
  65. Sam, A. S., Kumar, R., Kächele, H., & Müller, K. (2016). Quantifying household vulnerability triggered by drought: Evidence from rural India. Climate and Development.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2016.1193461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sarkar, A., & vanLoon, G. W. (2015). Modern agriculture and food and nutrition insecurity: Paradox in India. Public Health, 129(9), 1291–1293.Google Scholar
  67. Savary, S., Ficke, A., Aubertot, J.-N., & Hollier, C. (2012). Crop losses due to diseases and their implications for global food production losses and food security. Food Security, 4(4), 519–537.Google Scholar
  68. Savath, V., Fletschner, D., Peterman, A., & Santos, F. (2014). Land, assets, and livelihoods: Gendered analysis of evidence from Odisha state in India. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).Google Scholar
  69. Schmidhuber, J., & Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 104(50), 19703–19708.Google Scholar
  70. Schrieder, G., & Knerr, B. (2010). Labour migration as a social security mechanism for smallholder households in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon. Oxford Development Studies, 28(2), 223–236.Google Scholar
  71. Shah, K. U., & Dulal, H. B. (2015). Household capacity to adapt to climate change and implications for food security in Trinidad and Tobago. Regional Environmental Change, 15(7), 1379–1391.Google Scholar
  72. Shariff, Z. M., & Khor, G. L. (2008). Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia. Nutrition Research and Practice, 2(1), 26–34.Google Scholar
  73. Singh, A., Gonzalez, E. T., & Thomson, S. B. (2013). Millennium development goals and community initiatives in the Asia Pacific. India: Springer.Google Scholar
  74. Timmer, C. P. (2000). The macro dimensions of food security: Economic growth, equitable distribution, and food price stability. Food Policy, 25(3), 283–295.Google Scholar
  75. Uplekar, M., Pathania, V., & Raviglione, M. (2001). Private practitioners and public health: Weak links in tuberculosis control. The Lancet, 358(9285), 912–916.Google Scholar
  76. Wani, M. H., Baba, S. H., Hussain, M., Yousuf, S., Mir, S. A., & Kubravi, S. S. (2012). Food and nutritional security in the frame of crop diversification in the temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 67(3), 499–511.Google Scholar
  77. Wilson, R. T., Ehui, S., & Mack, S. (Eds). (1995). Livestock development strategies for low income countries. In Proceedings of the joint FAO/ILRI roundtable on livestock development strategies for low income countries, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 27–March 02, 1995. Nairobi, Kenya: Food and Agriculture Organization/International Livestock Research Institute.Google Scholar
  78. World Bank. (2006). Natural disaster hotspots. Case studies. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)MünchebergGermany
  2. 2.ICAR-National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (NAIP)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Agribusiness Management DivisionICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research ManagementHyderabadIndia
  4. 4.Albrecht Daniel Thaer Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural SciencesHumboldt UniversityBerlinGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Agricultural and Resource EconomicsUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  6. 6.Eberswalde University for Sustainable DevelopmentEberswaldeGermany
  7. 7.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)PatancheruIndia

Personalised recommendations