Social Indicators Research

, Volume 142, Issue 1, pp 1–24 | Cite as

International Comparison of Human Development Index Corrected by Greenness and Fairness Indicators and Policy Implications for China

  • Man Liang
  • Shuwen NiuEmail author
  • Zhen Li
  • Wenli Qiang


Human development index (HDI) integrating greenness and fairness indicators is an important reference for global governance. This paper used the geometric method to measure the primary HD index (CHDI1), HDI integrating greenness indicators (CHDI2), HDI integrating fairness indicators (CHDI3) and HDI integrating greenness and fairness indicators (CHDI4) of 57 countries from 1990 to 2014. The results show that four CHDI of 57 countries were all increased, but the development levels were unbalanced among countries. Some emerging industrialized countries, such as China, have made great achievements in development, but the basic pattern has not changed. The average CHDI1 of 57 countries was 0.58 in 2014, and this index decreased by 23.3, 20.3 and 39.34%, respectively, after corrected by greenness, fairness and both indicators. China’s CHDI1 rapidly increased from 1990 to 2014, which accounted for 84.7% of the mean value of 57 countries in 2014, and its rank moved up 12 places among 57 countries. However, this index decreased by 19.2, 42.25 and 53.3%, respectively, after before-mentioned three corrections. In order to improve the quality and efficiency of HD, China should not only promote the growth of material wealth and the improvement of social services, but also promote ecological civilization and pay more attention to social fairness.


Human development Greenness Fairness Quantitative measurement China 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Earth and Environmental SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhou CityChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education)Lanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina

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