International Comparison of Human Development Index Corrected by Greenness and Fairness Indicators and Policy Implications for China
- 155 Downloads
Human development index (HDI) integrating greenness and fairness indicators is an important reference for global governance. This paper used the geometric method to measure the primary HD index (CHDI1), HDI integrating greenness indicators (CHDI2), HDI integrating fairness indicators (CHDI3) and HDI integrating greenness and fairness indicators (CHDI4) of 57 countries from 1990 to 2014. The results show that four CHDI of 57 countries were all increased, but the development levels were unbalanced among countries. Some emerging industrialized countries, such as China, have made great achievements in development, but the basic pattern has not changed. The average CHDI1 of 57 countries was 0.58 in 2014, and this index decreased by 23.3, 20.3 and 39.34%, respectively, after corrected by greenness, fairness and both indicators. China’s CHDI1 rapidly increased from 1990 to 2014, which accounted for 84.7% of the mean value of 57 countries in 2014, and its rank moved up 12 places among 57 countries. However, this index decreased by 19.2, 42.25 and 53.3%, respectively, after before-mentioned three corrections. In order to improve the quality and efficiency of HD, China should not only promote the growth of material wealth and the improvement of social services, but also promote ecological civilization and pay more attention to social fairness.
KeywordsHuman development Greenness Fairness Quantitative measurement China
- Becker, R. A., Denby, L., McGill, R., & Wilks, A. R. (1987). Analysis of data from the Places Rated Almanac. The American Statistician, 41(3), 169–186.Google Scholar
- BP. (2016). World energy statistics online database. Statistical review of world energy 2015 workbook. http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statisticalreview-of-world-energy.html. Accessed March 13, 2016.
- Branko, M. (2016). Ginis Dataset. World Bank Publications http://www.worldbank.org/en/research/brief/all-the-ginis. Accessed May 4, 2016.
- Daly, H. E., & Cobb, J. (1989). For the common good: Redirecting the economy towards community, the environment, and a sustainable future (p. 482). Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Feng, Z., Wu, Y., & Yang, Y. (2009). Analysis on human development of China at multi-levels. Resources Science, 31(2), 178–184 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Forster, B. A. (2012). Human and economic development in China and India: A comparative MDG assessment. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 13(2), 42–58.Google Scholar
- He, L., & Pan, C. (2011). Uncover the “Easterlin Paradox” of China: Income gap, inequality of Opportunity and Happiness. Management World, 8, 11–22 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Hu, A., & Wang, H. (2017). Human development miracle in China (1950—2030). Journal of Tsinghua University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 32(2), 1–10 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Li, X., Liu, Y., & Song, T. (2014). Calculation of the green development index. Social Sciences in China, 6, 69–95 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Liu, J., Xiong, M., & Su, Y. (2012). National sense of happiness in the economic growth period: A study based on Arcgis data. Social Sciences in China, 12, 82–102 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- National Bureau of statistics of the People’s Republic of China. (2016). Statistical communique of the People’s Republic of China on the 2015 National Economic and Social Development. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201602/t201602291323991.html. Accessed April 8, 2016.
- Neumayer, E. (2007). Sustainability and well-being indicators. Human well-being. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Pan, J. (2002). A conceptual framework for understanding human development potential—With empirical analysis of global demand for carbon emissions. Social Sciences in China, 6, 15–25 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- The World Bank. (2010). An east Asian renaissance ideas for economic growth. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 22(2), 57–59.Google Scholar
- UNDP & Development Research Center of the State Council. (2016). Human development report in China 2016 (Chinese version) (pp. 7–19). Beijing: China Translation & Publishing House (CTPH).Google Scholar
- World Bank. (2000). World development indicators. World Bank Publications, http://data.worldbank.org.cn/indicator. Accessed October 6, 2015.
- World Bank. (2016). World development indicators. World Bank Publications, http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=wdi-database-archives-%28beta%29. Accessed March 10, 2016.
- Yang, J. (2014). Comparative analysis of China’s human development index. The World of Survey and Research, 1, 10–13 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Zheng, Z., Wu, S., & He, C. (2006). Analysis on the correlation between quality of life and sustainable development. China Soft Science, 7, 48–52 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar
- Zhou, S., & Hu, A. (2012). Understanding economic development and social progress: A perspective of national wellbeing. China Soft Science, 1, 57–64 (Chinese Journal).Google Scholar