A Multidimensional Analysis of Quality of Life: Pakistan’s Context
- 56 Downloads
Quality of Life (QoL) is a multi-dimensional idea that includes various distinctive dimensions and its estimation is considered as an essential factor for policy assessment. The study estimates the inter-district variation in QoL in Pakistan by using a data set of Household Integrated Economic Survey of 2010–2011. Objective and subjective indices are constructed to measure QoL with 7 domains and 31 indicators within 89 districts of Pakistan by employing the principal component analysis. The leading result of the study reveals that top ranked district is Jhelum in term of QoL and Tharparkar is at the bottom. The analysis also reveals that the most of the top ranked districts are located in Punjab province. This reflects the better performance of the province in term objective and QoL indices. Whereas, the districts of Balochistan emerge at the lower end in terms of objective and QoL indices. Majority districts of Punjab shows a modest level of satisfaction regarding the facilities provided by the government and the least satisfied districts belong to KPK and Sindh. It is interesting to identify that disparity in the objective index and subjective perceptions are representing QoL differences.
KeywordsQuality of Life Well-being Objective and Subjective Indicators Principal Component Analysis
- Alfaiate, J., Bottini, N., Clarke, S., Dengler, S., Gamester, N., Omic, E. et al. (2013). The Legatum Prosperity Index™. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from http://media.prosperity.com/2013/pdf/publications/PI2013Brochure_WEB.pdf.
- Government of Pakistan. (2014). Economic survey of Pakistan 2013–2014. Islamabad: Federal Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Tatham, R. L., Anderson, R. E., & Black, W. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 6). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Haq, H. (2009). Measuring human wellbeing in Pakistan: Objective versus subjective indicators. MPRA paper, 38968, University Library of Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
- Haq, R., Ahmed, A., & Shafique, S. (2010). Variation in the quality of life within Punjab: Evidence from MICS, 2007–2008. The Pakistan Development Review, 49(4), 863–879.Google Scholar
- Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2013). World happiness report. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from http://unsdsn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/WorldHappinessReport2013_online.pdf.
- Krishnan, V. (2010). Constructing an area-based socioeconomic index: A principal components analysis approach. Unpublished Manuscript. Early Child Development Mapping Project, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.Google Scholar
- Malik, K. (2013). Human development report 2013. The rise of the south: Human progress in a diverse world. Retrieved February 22, 2014, from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf.
- Nardo, M., Saisana, M., Saltelli, A., Tarantola, S., Hoffman, A., & Giovannini, E. (2005). Handbook on constructing composite indicators: Methodology and user guide. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2015). How’s life? 2015: Measuring well-being. Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved November 27, 2015, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/how_life-2015-en.
- O’Rourke, N., & Hatcher, L. (2013). A step-by-step approach to using SAS for factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
- Pasha, H. A., & Hasan, T. (1982). Development ranking of districts of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, 1(2), 157–192.Google Scholar
- Self, A., Thomas, J., & Randall, C. (2012). Measuring national well-being: Life in the UK 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_287415.pdf.
- Siddiqui, R. (2008). Income, public social services, and capability development: A cross-district analysis of Pakistan. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.Google Scholar
- Todaro, M. P., & Smith, S. C. (2009). Economic development. London: Pearson Education Ltd.Google Scholar
- Ura, K., Alkire, S., Zangmo, T., & Wangdi, K. (2012). A short guide to gross national happiness index. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Short-GNH-Index-edited.pdf.
- Zorondo-Rodríguez, F., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Demps, K., Ariza-Montobbio, P., García, C., & Reyes-García, V. (2012). What defines quality of life? The gap between public policies and locally defined indicators among residents of Kodagu, Karnataka (India). Social Indicators Research, 115(1), 441–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar