Social Indicators Research

, Volume 141, Issue 2, pp 861–871 | Cite as

Electronic Health Record Breaches as Social Indicators

  • Waldemar W. KoczkodajEmail author
  • Mirosław Mazurek
  • Dominik Strzałka
  • Alicja Wolny-Dominiak
  • Marc Woodbury-Smith


This study presents compelling social indicators of such magnitude that they cannot be ignored. The statistical evidence shows that data breaches of electronic health records have taken place at an unprecedented scale. Currently, the number of individuals affected, as regulations of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act refers to us, has surpassed the half of the US population (some data is breached several times lowering the number of victims but increasing the possibility of being sold quickly). The data breaches are recorded and posted by Department of Health and Human Services.


Security breach Office for Civil Rights Department of Health and Human Services 



We thank Grant O. Duncan, Team Lead, Business Intelligence, Integration and Development, Health Sciences North, (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and Martha O’Kennon from Albion College for reading the first draft.


  1. Amante, D. J., Hogan, T. P., & Pagoto, S. L. (2015). Access to care and use of the internet to search for health information: Results from the US National Health interview survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17, e106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bilgic, Y. K., & Susmann, H. (2013). rlme: An R package for rank-based estimation and prediction in random effects nested models. The R Journal, 5(2), 71–79.Google Scholar
  3. Bivand, R., & Lewin-Koh, N. (2017). Maptools: Tools for reading and handling spatial objects. R package version 0.9-2.Google Scholar
  4. Brennan, T. A., Leape, L. L., Laird, N. M., Hebert, L., Localio, A. R., Lawthers, A. G., et al. (1991). Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients: Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. The New England Journal of Medicine, 324(6), 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crotty, B. H., & Mostaghimi, A. (2014). Confidentiality in the digital age. BMJ-British Medical Journal, 348, g2943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goksuluk, D., Korkmaz, S., Zararsiz, G., & Karaagaoglu, A. E. (2016). easyROC: An interactive web-tool for roc curve analysis using R language environment. The R Journal, 8(2), 213–230.Google Scholar
  7. HITECH—Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. (2009). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Public Law (pp. 111–115).Google Scholar
  8. HHS Breach Portal. (2017). Accessed May, 2017.
  9. Koczkodaj, W. W., Kakiashvili, T., Szymańska, A., Montero-Marin, J., Araya, R., Garcia-Campayo, J., et al. (2017). How to reduce the number of rating scale items without predictability loss? Scientometrics, 111(2), 581–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leape, L. L., Brennan, T. A., Laird, N., Lawthers, A. G., Localio, A. R., Barnes, B. A., et al. (1991). The nature of adverse events in hospitalized patients: Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study II. The New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 377–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee, P., Leung, L., Lo, V., Xiong, C., & Wu, T. (2011). Internet communication versus face-to-face interaction in quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 100(3), 375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Maggino, F., & Facioni, C. (2017). Measuring stability and change: Methodological issues in quality of life studies. Social Indicators Research, 130, 161–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nigrin, D. J. (2014). When ‘hacktivists’ target your hospital. The New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Connor, J. (2011). Informational privacy, public health, and state laws. American Journal of Public Health, 101(1845–1850), 2011.Google Scholar
  15. R Core Team. (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
  16. Senol-Durak, E., & Durak, M. (2011). The mediator roles of life satisfaction and self-esteem between the active components of psychological well-being and the cognitive symptoms of problematic internet use. Social Indicators Research, 103(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. UIC Health Informatics. (2017). Why data security is the biggest concern of health care.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waldemar W. Koczkodaj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mirosław Mazurek
    • 2
  • Dominik Strzałka
    • 2
  • Alicja Wolny-Dominiak
    • 3
  • Marc Woodbury-Smith
    • 4
  1. 1.Computer ScienceLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringRzeszów University of TechnologyRzeszowPoland
  3. 3.Department of Statistical and Mathematical Methods in EconomicsUniversity of Economics in Katowice40-287 KatowicePoland
  4. 4.The Institute of NeuroscienceNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations