Social Indicators Research

, Volume 140, Issue 3, pp 1211–1224 | Cite as

Education Enrollment Level and Income Inequality: A Case of SAARC Economies

  • Noman Arshed
  • Awais AnwarEmail author
  • Nabeela Kousar
  • Samra Bukhari


This study is based on the idea that education forms a quadratic relationship with the income inequality. To evaluate it for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, this study uses the panel data from 1990 to 2015. Long run panel data necessitated the use of panel co-integration approach, followed up with fully modified OLS model to generate long-run coefficients. The results depict that initially primary and secondary enrollment increases inequality while tertiary enrollment decreases it. However, after a certain threshold level of enrollment (76% for primary, 42% for secondary and 7% for tertiary), their effect reverses. Thus, it makes inverted U shape for primary and secondary enrollment and U shape for tertiary enrollment. Hence education shows diminishing marginal return effect. Only the countries of India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal in SAARC economies have high enough education enrollments to cause a negative effect on income inequality.


Education Income inequality DMR Panel co-integration Panel FMOLS 

JEL Classification

I24 O15 O53 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noman Arshed
    • 1
  • Awais Anwar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nabeela Kousar
    • 3
  • Samra Bukhari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of Management and TechnologyLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Center of Economic ResearchShandong UniversityJinanChina
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

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