Are Traditional, Negative Gender Attitudes Associated with Violent Attitudes toward Women? Insights from a New, Culturally Adapted Measure in India
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We conducted four focus group discussions followed by three studies to develop and validate a scale for measuring traditional attitudes toward women in Indian society. Study 1 (n = 592) yielded four factors (i.e., Perceived Feminine Frivolity and Selfishness; Extra-Familial Patriarchal Attitudes; Within-Family Patriarchal Attitudes; Perceived Feminine Weakness) underlying traditional negative attitudes toward women in Indian society. In Study 2 (n = 250), a four-factor reflective model offered a comparatively better model fit and robust psychometric properties for the proposed scale. Study 3 (n = 343) showed that the proposed measure (the Traditional Attitudes toward Indian Women scale; TAIW) explains a significantly greater amount of variance in violent attitudes toward women as compared to a scale standardized in other cultures, demonstrating the predictive relevance of the scale. Decoding the complex relationship between culture and gender-based violence, our measure establishes a clear link between traditional gender and violent attitudes toward women both among male and female participants. We discuss the implication of our findings for policy, research, professional practice, and psychological intervention to create a more inclusive and egalitarian social experience for women.
KeywordsAttitudes Culture Gender India Violence
We acknowledge the help of two Research Assistants, Aparna Gakhar and Ganga Tiwari, for their assistance during the research process and fieldwork.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest. All the research participants were treated as per the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and 1964 Helsinki declaration and its subsequent amendments. Informed consent from all the research participants was taken.
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