Sex Roles

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Diagnostic Aversion Predict Symptom Expression in a Community Sample of Distressed Men

  • Jonathan D. JampelEmail author
  • Douglas Gazarian
  • Michael E. Addis
  • Ethan Hoffman
Original Article


Adherence to traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) is associated with a host of negative outcomes, including higher rates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. However, relatively less is known about the mechanisms and contexts through which TMI affects the expression of psychological distress. In the current study, men’s aversion to being diagnosed with a mental health disorder was tested as a mediator and moderator to help clarify the relationship between TMI and symptom expression. A community sample of 72 U.S. men experiencing elevated psychological distress completed self-report questionnaires during a single session. Results demonstrated that diagnostic aversion mediated the positive association between TMI and internalizing symptoms. In addition, diagnostic aversion moderated the positive association between TMI and externalizing symptoms, such that this association was stronger among men who demonstrated higher levels of diagnostic aversion. Aversion to mental health diagnosis may be important in understanding how men who adhere to TMI manifest distress across diagnostic categories.


Sex role attitudes Masculinity Externalizing symptoms Internalizing symptoms Mental health stigma Self-report 



Research reported in this manuscript was supported by an award to Michael E. Addis by the National Institute of Mental Health (R34MH073073).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from participants before any study procedures were implemented.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest to disclose.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyClark UniversityWorcesterUSA

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