A Test of the Expanded Tripartite Dual Pathway Model in Physically Active Korean Men
- 24 Downloads
The notion that having body-related problems is a female-oriented issue ignores that men also are pressured to have an ideal body, resulting in body image concerns and problems among men. The present research examined the expanded tripartite dual pathway model to explain body image concerns and problems experienced by physically active Korean men. Participants were 427 Korean men in their 20s to 30s who engaged in any regular activity at least once a week. Participants completed an online questionnaire incorporating measures of sociocultural pressures to have a mesomorphic body ideal, internalization, dissatisfaction with muscularity and body fat, muscularity enhancement behaviors, and disordered eating behaviors. The relationships among these variables were assessed using a structural equation model. The results confirmed that sociocultural pressures to be mesomorphic ultimately determine Korean men’s body image perceptions. Compared to previous studies with American and French samples, similar yet distinct associations of sociocultural pressures from the social networking sites of peers and celebrities, real-life friends, and family with body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors via internalization of the mesomorphic body ideal were found among young adult Korean men. Our study contributes to the current literature by confirming the usefulness of the expanded tripartite dual pathway model in understanding Korean men’s body image.
KeywordsSociocultural model Mesomorphic ideal Body dissatisfaction Muscularity Disordered eating Men
This research did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bögenhold, D., & Naz, F. (2015). Gender advertisements. In F. F. Wherry & J. B. Schor (Eds.), The SAGE encyclopedia of economics and society (pp. 771–773). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Brichacek, A. L., Neill, J. T., & Murray, K. (2018). The effect of basic psychological needs and exposure to idealized Facebook images on university students’ body satisfaction. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 12(3), article 2. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2018-3-2.
- Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfindel, P. E. (1982). The eating attitudes test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871–878.Google Scholar
- Gattario, K. H., Frisén, A., Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Ricciardelli, L. A., Diedrichs, P. C., Yager, Z., … Smolak, L. (2015). How is men’s conformity to masculine norms related to their body image? Masculinity and muscularity across Western countries. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(3), 337–347. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038494.Google Scholar
- Griffiths, S., Murray, S. B., Krug, I., & McLean, S. A. (2018). The contribution of social media to body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and anabolic steroid use among sexual minority men. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 21(3), 149–156. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0375.Google Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Balin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). England: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
- Hong, K. H. (2008). The influence of male college students’ extent of mass media exposure on sociocultural attitude toward appearance and appearance orientation. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 32(7), 1149–1159.Google Scholar
- Keum, B. T., Wong, S. N., DeBlaere, C., & Brewster, M. E. (2015). Body image and Asian American men: Examination of the Drive for Muscularity Scale. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(3), 284–293. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038180.
- Kim, Y., & Lee, J. N. (2009). The effect of sociocultural pressure and objectified body consciousness on appearance management behavior for male adults. Journal of Korea Soc. Beauty and Art, 10(1), 153–167.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Lee, M. (2018). A study on sociocultural attitudes toward appearance and clothing and cosmetics purchasing behaviors of male consumers: Focused on comparative analysis between 20s~30s and 40s~50s. Fashion & Textile Research Journal, 20(4), 389–399. https://doi.org/10.5805/SFTI.2018.20.4.389.Google Scholar
- Louie, K. (2002). Theorising Chinese masculinity: Society and gender in China. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11(3), 320–341. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2.Google Scholar
- Schaefer, L. M., Harriger, J. A., Heinberg, L. J., Soderberg, T., & Thompson, J. K. (2017). Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4-revised (SATAQ-4R). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50(2), 104–117. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22590.
- Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Tylka, T. L., Bergeron, D., & Schwartz, J. P. (2005). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS). Body Image, 2(2), 161–175.Google Scholar