Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 81, Issue 1–2, pp 97–108 | Cite as

Body Surveillance Predicts Men’s and Women’s Perceived Loneliness: A Serial Mediation Model

  • Fei TengEmail author
  • Wenyang Gao
  • Xishan Huang
  • Kai-Tak Poon
Original Article
  • 212 Downloads

Abstract

Previous research on self-objectification mainly focuses on its influences on intrapersonal psychological distress whereas our study examined whether self-objectification would influence interpersonal distress (i.e., loneliness) and its corresponding mechanisms in a sample of American women and men recruited with MTurk. Participants’ self-objectification was indexed by their level of body surveillance, and we proposed that body surveillance would increase women’s and men’s tendency to experience shame about their body and decrease their general self-esteem, which would in turn predict their level of loneliness. A total of 373 Americans (235 women; Mdnage = 33 years-old, range = 18–77) participated in the present study, and the results provided support for the proposed theoretical model. Specifically, we found that body surveillance positively predicted people’s body shame, and body shame negatively predicted self-esteem, which in turn predicted people’s loneliness. Moreover, this mediational model was not different between men and women. These results expand the scope of investigation by incorporating male samples, and they suggest that in addition to intrapersonal consequences, self-objectification can also influence people’s interpersonal well-being. Implications were discussed.

Keywords

Self-objectification Body surveillance Loneliness Body shame Self-esteem 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC:31600916), The Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science Project (MOE: 16YJC630111), Guizhou Confucius Academy: The project on the relation between Yangming school of Mind and Social psychology (KXTXT201604).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication. The manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors.

Informed Consent

All the human participants involved in this research provided their consent before they participated in this research and were fully debriefed at the end of the research.

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  2. Balcetis, E., Cole, S., Chelberg, M. B., & Alicke, M. (2013). Searching out the ideal: Awareness of ideal body standards predicts lower global self-esteem in women. Self and Identity, 12, 99–113.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2011.639549.Google Scholar
  3. Bandalos, D. L. (2008). Is parceling really necessary? A comparison of results from item parceling and categorical variable methodology. Structural Equation Modeling, 15, 211–240.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510801922340.Google Scholar
  4. Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497.Google Scholar
  5. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2009). Sexual economics: Sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 339–363.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0804_2.Google Scholar
  6. Baumeister, R., DeWall, C., Ciarocco, N., & Twenge, J. (2005). Social exclusion impairs self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 589–604.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.4.589.Google Scholar
  7. Buckley, K., Winkel, R., & Leary, M. (2004). Reactions to acceptance and rejection: Effects of level and sequence of relational evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 14–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(03)00064-7.Google Scholar
  8. Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon's mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3–5.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610393980.Google Scholar
  9. Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2005). People thinking about people: The vicious cycle of being a social outcast in one’s own mind. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas, & W. von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp. 91–108). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Crawford, L. E., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., Kowalewski, R. B., … Berntson, G. G. (2002). Loneliness and health. Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 407–417.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-200205000-00005.
  11. Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Berntson, G. G. (2003). The anatomy of loneliness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 71–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01232.Google Scholar
  12. Cacioppo, J. T, Hawkley, L. C., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M., Berntson, G. G., Nouriani, B., … Spiegel, D. (2006). Loneliness within a nomological net: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1054–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.11.007.
  13. Calogero, R. (2004). A test of objectification theory: The effect of the male gaze on appearance concerns in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 16–21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00118.x.Google Scholar
  14. Calogero, R. M., Davis, W. N., & Thompson, J. K. (2005). The role of self-objectification in the experience of women with eating disorders. Sex Roles, 52, 43–50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-1192-9.Google Scholar
  15. Calogero, R. M., Pina, A., Park, L. E., & Rahemtulla, Z. (2010). Objectification theory predicts college women's attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Sex Roles, 63, 32–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9759-5.Google Scholar
  16. Calogero, R. M., Pina, A., & Sutton, R. M. (2014). Cutting words priming self-objectification increases women’s intention to pursue cosmetic surgery. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38, 197–207.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684313506881.Google Scholar
  17. Carvalheira, A., Godinho, L., & Costa, P. (2017). The impact of body dissatisfaction on distressing sexual difficulties among men and women: The mediator role of cognitive distraction. The Journal of Sex Research, 54, 331–340.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2016.1168771.Google Scholar
  18. Chaney, M. P. (2008). Muscle dysmorphia, self-esteem, and loneliness among gay and bisexual men. International Journal of Men's Health, 7, 157–170.  https://doi.org/10.3149/jmh.0702.157.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, Z., Teng, F., & Zhang, H. (2013). Sinful flesh: Sexual objectification threatens women's moral self. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 1042–1048.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2013.07.008.Google Scholar
  20. Choma, B. L., Foster, M. D., & Radford, E. (2007). Use of objectification theory to examine the effects of a media literacy intervention on women. Sex Roles, 56(9–10), 581–590.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9200-x.Google Scholar
  21. Cole, B. P., Davidson, M. M., & Gervais, S. J. (2013). Body surveillance and body shame in college men: Are men who self-objectify less hopeful? Sex Roles, 69, 29–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-013-0282-3.Google Scholar
  22. Cooley, C. H. (1994). Looking-glass self. In P. Kollock & J. O’Brien (Eds.), The production of reality (pp. 266–268). Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  23. Daniel, S., & Bridges, S. K. (2010). The drive for muscularity in men: Media influences and objectification theory. Body Image, 7, 32–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.08.003.Google Scholar
  24. DeNiro, D. A. (1995). Perceived alienation in individuals with residual-type schizophrenia. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 16, 185–200.  https://doi.org/10.3109/01612849509006934.Google Scholar
  25. Downey, R. G., & King, C. V. (1998). Missing data in Likert ratings: A comparison of replacement methods. The Journal of General Psychology, 125, 175–191.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309809595542.Google Scholar
  26. Fessman, N., & Lester, D. (2000). Loneliness and depression among elderly nursing home patients. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 51, 137–141.  https://doi.org/10.2190/5VY9-N1VT-VBFX-50RG.Google Scholar
  27. Franzoi, S. L., & Herzog, M. E. (1986). The body esteem scale: A convergent and discriminant validity study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50, 24–31.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5001_4.Google Scholar
  28. Frederick, D. A., Forbes, G. B., Grigorian, K. E., & Jarcho, J. M. (2007). The UCLA body project I: Gender and ethnic differences in self-objectification and body satisfaction among 2,206 undergraduates. Sex Roles, 57, 317–327.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9251-z.Google Scholar
  29. Fredrickson, B., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.Google Scholar
  30. Fredrickson, B., Roberts, T., Noll, S., Quinn, D., & Twenge, J. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 269–284.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.269.Google Scholar
  31. Fung, K., & Alden, L. E. (2017). Once hurt, twice shy: Social pain contributes to social anxiety. Emotion, 17, 231–239.  https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000223.Google Scholar
  32. Gapinski, K. D., Brownell, K. D., & LaFrance, M. (2003). Body objectification and "fat talk": Effects on emotion, motivation, and cognitive performance. Sex Roles, 48, 377–388.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023516209973.Google Scholar
  33. Garner, D. M. (1997, January). The 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/199702/body-image-in-america-survey-results.
  34. Grabe, S., Hyde, J. S., & Lindberg, S. M. (2007). Body objectification and depression in adolescents: The role of gender, shame, and rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 164–175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00350.x.Google Scholar
  35. Harper, B., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). The effect of thin ideal media images on women's self-objectification, mood, and body image. Sex Roles, 58, 649–657.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9379-x.Google Scholar
  36. Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 218–227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-010-9210-8.Google Scholar
  37. Hebl, M., King, E., & Lin, J. (2004). The swimsuit becomes us all: Ethnicity, gender, and vulnerability to self-objectification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1322–1331.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264052.Google Scholar
  38. Henriques, G. R., & Calhoun, L. G. (1999). Gender and ethnic differences in the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem. The Journal of Psychology, 133, 357–368.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989909599748.Google Scholar
  39. Hobfoll, S. E., Nadler, A., & Leiberman, J. (1986). Satisfaction with social support during crisis: Intimacy and self-esteem as critical determinants. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 296–304.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.2.296.Google Scholar
  40. Holland, D., & Skinner, D. (1987). Prestige and intimacy: The cultural models behind Americans’ talk about gender types. In D. Holland & N. Quinn (Eds.), Cultural models in language and thought (pp. 78–111). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hymel, S., Rubin, K. H., Rowden, L., & LeMare, L. (1990). Children's peer relationships: Longitudinal prediction of internalizing and externalizing problems from middle to late childhood. Child Development, 61, 2004–2021.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb03582.x.Google Scholar
  42. Jackson, J., & Cochran, S. D. (1990). Loneliness and psychological distress. The Journal of Psychology, 125, 257–262.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1991.10543289.Google Scholar
  43. Jung, J., & Forbes, G. B. (2007). Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among college women in China, South Korea, and the United States: Contrasting predictions from sociocultural and feminist theories. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 381–393.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00387.x.Google Scholar
  44. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Garner, W., Speicher, C., Penn, G. M., Holliday, J., & Glaser, R. (1984a). Psychosocial modifiers of immune competence in medical students. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 7–14.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-198401000-00003.Google Scholar
  45. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Ricker, D., George, J., Messick, G., Speicher, C. E., Garner, W., … Glaser, R. (1984b). Urinary cortisol levels, cellular immune competency, and loneliness in psychiatric inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 15–23.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-1984010000-00004.
  46. Kline, R. (2005). Methodology in the social sciences: Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Larson, R. G. (1999). The structure and rheology of complex fluids (Vol. 150). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Leary, M., & Baumeister, R. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 1–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(00)80003-9.Google Scholar
  49. Leary, M., Tambor, E., Terdal, S., & Downs, D. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 518–530.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.3.518.Google Scholar
  50. Leit, R. A., Pope, H. G., & Gray, J. J. (2001). Cultural expectations of muscularity in men: The evolution of playgirl centerfolds. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 90–93.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X(200101)29:1<90::AID-EAT15>3.0.CO;2-F.Google Scholar
  51. Lemay Jr., E. P., Clark, M. S., & Greenberg, A. (2010). What is beautiful is good because what is beautiful is desired: Physical attractiveness stereotyping as projection of interpersonal goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 339–353.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167209359700.Google Scholar
  52. Lewis, M. (1995). Shame: The exposed self. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lindberg, S., Hyde, J., & McKinley, N. (2006). A measure of objectified body consciousness for preadolescent and adolescent youth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 65–76.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00263.x.Google Scholar
  54. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151–173.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1.Google Scholar
  55. Lowery, S. E., Robinson Kurpius, S. E., Befort, C., Hull Banks, E., Sollenberger, S., … Huser, L. (2005). Body image, self-esteem, and health-related behaviors among male and female first year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 612–623.  https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2005.0062.
  56. Lutwak, N., Panish, J., & Ferrari, J. (2003). Shame and guilt: Characterological vs. behavioral self-blame and their relationship to fear of intimacy. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 909–916.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00307-0.Google Scholar
  57. Mahon, N. E., Yarcheski, A., Yarcheski, T. J., Cannella, B. L., & Hanks, M. M. (2006). A meta-analytic study of predictors for loneliness during adolescence. Nursing Research, 55, 308–315.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200609000-00003.Google Scholar
  58. Man, K., & Hamid, P. N. (1998). The relationship between attachment prototypes, self-esteem, loneliness and causal attributions in Chinese trainee teachers. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 357–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00185-2.Google Scholar
  59. Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2.Google Scholar
  60. Martins, Y., Tiggemann, M., & Kirkbride, A. (2007). Those speedos become them: The role of self-objectification in gay and heterosexual men's body image. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 634–647.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167206297403.Google Scholar
  61. McKinley, N. M. (2006). The developmental and cultural contexts of objectified body consciousness: A longitudinal analysis of two cohorts of women. Developmental Psychology, 42, 679–687.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.679.Google Scholar
  62. McKinley, N., & Hyde, J. (1996). The objectified body consciousness scale development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181–215.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1996.tb00467.x.Google Scholar
  63. McWhirter, B. T., Besett-Alesch, T. M., Horibata, J., & Gat, I. (2002). Loneliness in high risk adolescents: The role of coping, self-esteem, and empathy. Journal of Youth Studies, 5, 69–84.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260120111779.Google Scholar
  64. Mendelson, B. K., Mendelson, M. J., & White, D. R. (2001). Body-esteem scale for adolescents and adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 90–106.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7601_6.Google Scholar
  65. Mercurio, A., & Landry, L. (2008). Self-objectification and well-being: The impact of self-objectification on women's overall sense of self-worth and life satisfaction. Sex Roles, 58, 458–466.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9357-3.Google Scholar
  66. Moore, D., & Schultz, N. R. (1983). Loneliness at adolescence: Correlates, attributions, and coping. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12, 95–100.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02088307.Google Scholar
  67. Moradi, B., & Huang, Y. (2008). Objectification theory and psychology of women: A decade of advances and future directions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 377–398.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00452.x.Google Scholar
  68. Muehlenkamp, J., & Saris-Baglama, R. (2002). Self-objectification and its psychological outcomes for college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 371–379.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-6402.t01-1-00076.Google Scholar
  69. Muehlenkamp, J., Swanson, J. D., & Brausch, A. M. (2005). Self-objectification, risk taking, and self-harm in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(1), 24–32.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00164.x.Google Scholar
  70. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2015). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  71. Neeleman, J., & Power, M. J. (1994). Social support and depression in three groups of psychiatric patients and a group of medical controls. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 29, 46–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00796448.Google Scholar
  72. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Ahrens, C. (2002). Age differences and similarities in the correlates of depressive symptoms. Psychology and Aging, 17, 116–124.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0882-7974.17.1.116.Google Scholar
  73. Noll, S. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). A mediational model linking self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 623–636.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00181.x.Google Scholar
  74. Noser, A., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2014). Investing in the ideal: Does objectified body consciousness mediate the association between appearance contingent self-worth and appearance self-esteem in women? Body Image, 11, 119–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.11.006.Google Scholar
  75. Olivardia, R., Pope Jr., H. G., Borowiecki III, J. J., & Cohane, G. H. (2004). Biceps and body image: The relationship between muscularity and self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder symptoms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5, 112–120.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.5.2.112.Google Scholar
  76. Olmstead, R. E., Guy, S. M., O'Mally, P. M., & Bentler, P. M. (1991). Longitudinal assessment of the relationship between self-esteem, fatalism, loneliness, and substance use. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 749–770.Google Scholar
  77. Park, L., & Maner, J. (2009). Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 203–217.Google Scholar
  78. Park, L., Calogero, R. M., Harwin, M. J., & DiRaddo, A. M. (2009a). Predicting interest in cosmetic surgery: Interactive effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity and negative appearance comments. Body Image, 6, 186–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.02.003.Google Scholar
  79. Park, L. E., DiRaddo, A. M., & Calogero, R. M. (2009b). Sociocultural influence and appearance-based rejection sensitivity among college students. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 108–119.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01478.x.Google Scholar
  80. Park, L. E., Calogero, R. M., Young, A. F., & Diraddo, A. M. (2010). Appearance-based rejection sensitivity predicts body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and cosmetic surgery acceptance. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29, 489–509.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2010.29.5.489.Google Scholar
  81. Peplau, L. A., & Perlman, D. (1982). Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  82. Perlman, D., & Peplau, L. A. (1981). Toward a social psychology of loneliness. Personal Relationships, 3, 31–56.Google Scholar
  83. Poon, K. T., & Teng, F. (2017). Feeling unrestricted by rules: Ostracism promotes aggressive responses. Aggressive Behavior, 43, 558–567.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21714.Google Scholar
  84. Poon, K. T., Teng, F., Wong, W. Y., & Chen, Z. (2016). When nature heals: Nature exposure moderates the relationship between ostracism and aggression. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 48, 159–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.10.002.Google Scholar
  85. Pope Jr., H. G., Olivardia, R., Borowiecki III, J. J., & Cohane, G. H. (2001). The growing commercial value of the male body: A longitudinal survey of advertising in women’s magazines. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 70, 189–192.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000056252.Google Scholar
  86. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.Google Scholar
  87. Quinn, D., Kallen, R., Twenge, J., & Fredrickson, B. (2006). The disruptive effect of self-objectification on performance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 59–64.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j/1471-6402.2006.00262.x.Google Scholar
  88. Rollero, C. (2013). Men and women facing objectification: The effects of media models on well-being, self-esteem and ambivalent sexism. Revista de Psicología Social, 28, 373–382.  https://doi.org/10.1174/021347413807719166.Google Scholar
  89. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3340091.Google Scholar
  91. Russell, D. W. (1996). UCLA loneliness scale (version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20–40.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2.Google Scholar
  92. Saguy, T., Quinn, D., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2010). Interacting like a body: Objectification can lead women to narrow their presence in social interactions. Psychological Science, 21, 178–182.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797609357751.Google Scholar
  93. Sanchez, D. T., & Kiefer, A. K. (2007). Body concerns in and out of the bedroom: Implications for sexual pleasure and problems. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 808–820.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-007-9205-0.Google Scholar
  94. Sangrador, J. L., & Yela, C. (2000). ‘What is beautiful is loved’: Physical attractiveness in love relationships in a representative sample. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 28, 207–218.  https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2000.28.3.207.Google Scholar
  95. Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2006). The approach and avoidance function of guilt and shame emotions: Comparing reactions to self-caused and other-caused wrongdoing. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 42–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-006-9006-0.Google Scholar
  96. Sommer, K., & Baumeister, R. (2002). Self-evaluation, persistence, and performance following implicit rejection: The role of trait self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 926–938.  https://doi.org/10.1177/014672028007006.Google Scholar
  97. Steer, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). The role of self-objectification in women's sexual functioning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 205–225.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2008.27.3.205.Google Scholar
  98. Stenseng, F., Belsky, J., Skalicka, V., & Wichstrom, L. (2015). Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: A 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school. Journal of Personality, 83, 212–220.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12096.Google Scholar
  99. Strelan, P., & Hargreaves, D. (2005). Reasons for exercise and body esteem: Men's responses to self-objectification. Sex Roles, 53, 495–503.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-7137-5.Google Scholar
  100. Strelan, P., Mehaffey, S. J., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). Brief report: Self-objectification and esteem in young women: The mediating role of reasons for exercise. Sex Roles, 48, 89–95.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022300930307.Google Scholar
  101. Szymanski, D. M., & Henning, S. L. (2007). The role of self-objectification in women’s depression: A test of objectification theory. Sex Roles, 56, 45–53.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9147-3.Google Scholar
  102. Tangney, J. P., Miller, R. S., Flicker, L., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Are shame, guilt, and embarrassment distinct emotions? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1256–1269.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.6.1256.Google Scholar
  103. Teng, F., Chen, Z., Poon, K. T., & Zhang, D. (2015). Sexual objectification pushes women away: The role of decreased likability. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 77–87.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2070.Google Scholar
  104. Tiggemann, M., & Boundy, M. (2008). Effect of environment and appearance compliment on college women's self-objectification, mood, body shame, and cognitive performance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 399–405.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00453.x.Google Scholar
  105. Tiggemann, M., & Kuring, J. K. (2004). The role of body objectification in disordered eating and depressed mood. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 299–311.  https://doi.org/10.1348/0144665031752925.Google Scholar
  106. Tiggemann, M., & Slater, A. (2001). A test of objectification theory in former dancers and non-dancers. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 57–64.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-6402.00007.Google Scholar
  107. Tiggemann, M., & Williams, E. (2012). The role of self-objectification in disordered eating, depressed mood, and sexual functioning among women: A comprehensive test of objectification theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36, 66–75.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684311420250.Google Scholar
  108. Twenge, J., Baumeister, R., Tice, D., & Stucke, T. (2001). If you can't join them, beat them: Effects of social exclusion on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1058–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.81.6.1058.Google Scholar
  109. Vargo, B. (1995). Are withdrawn children at risk? Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 11, 166–177.  https://doi.org/10.1177/082957359601100221.Google Scholar
  110. Wade, T. J., & Cooper, M. (1999). Sex differences in the links between attractiveness, self-esteem and the body. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1047–1056.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00043-4.Google Scholar
  111. Walster, E., Aronson, V., Abrahams, D., & Rottman, L. (1966). Importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 508–516.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021188.Google Scholar
  112. Wilksch, S. M., & Wade, T. D. (2009). Reduction of shape and weight concern in young adolescents: A 30-month controlled evaluation of a media literacy program. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 652–661.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a1f559.Google Scholar
  113. Wiseman, H. (1997). Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in the experience of loneliness during the transition to university. Personal Relationships, 4, 285–299.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.1997.tb00146.x.Google Scholar
  114. Yang, J. (2011). Nennu and shunu: Gender, body politics, and the beauty economy in China. Signs, 36, 333–357. 10.86/655913Google Scholar
  115. Zurbriggen, E. L., Ramsey, L. R., & Jaworski, B. K. (2011). Self-and partner-objectification in romantic relationships: Associations with media consumption and relationship satisfaction. Sex Roles, 64, 449–462.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9933-4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fei Teng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wenyang Gao
    • 1
  • Xishan Huang
    • 1
  • Kai-Tak Poon
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, The Base of Psychological Services and Counseling for “Happiness” in GuangzhouSouth China Normal UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Centre for Psychosocial HealthThe Education University of Hong KongTing KokHong Kong

Personalised recommendations