Do Women in the Newsroom Make a Difference? Coverage Sentiment toward Women and Men as a Function of Newsroom Composition
- 227 Downloads
Positive or negative media coverage may have important consequences for individuals’ lives and ability to succeed. One potential factor that may affect the tone of coverage, in particular for women, is the gender of newsroom managers. Some scholars have suggested that women in key editorial and managerial roles should have a positive effect on the overall coverage of issues in the news, and specifically on the coverage of women. We used fixed effects regression to analyze panel data on the coverage sentiment of 212 U.S. newspapers from various cities and states between 2004 and 2009 to examine the effects of the gendered composition of newsrooms on coverage tone for both men and women. Our results showed that individuals with female names receive more positive coverage than those with male names do in every section of the newspaper. We also found that increases in female representation on newspapers’ editorial boards resulted in coverage for women that is moderately more positive. However, there is no evidence that under female executive editorship coverage sentiment favors women. Our findings are consistent with the work of gender sociologists and media scholars who have highlighted the media’s rigid gender structures and their resistance to change.
KeywordsMedia Editors Gender Coverage Sentiment Gender composition
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The paper fully complies with ethical standards.
- Alvesson, M., & Billing, Y. D. (2009). Understanding gender and organizations. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- American Society of News Editors. (2017). 2017 Newsroom Diversity Survey. Retrieved from https://www.asne.org/diversity-survey-2017.
- Bautin, M., Ward, C., Patil, A., & Skiena, S. (2010). Access: News and blog analysis for the social sciences. 19th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2010), Raleigh, NC.Google Scholar
- Benokraitis, N. V., & Feagin, J. R. (1994). Modern sexism: Blatant, subtle, and covert discrimination (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Braden, M. (1996). Women politicians and the media. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.Google Scholar
- Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Caprino, K. (2014, November). What's wrong with the media’s portrayal of women today, and how to reverse it. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kathycaprino/2014/11/21/whats-wrong-with-the-medias-portrayal-of-women-today-and-how-to-reverse-it/#7860d3bc71b2.
- Carter, C., Branston, G., & Allan, S. (1998). Setting new(s) agendas, an introduction. In C. Carter, G. Branston, & S. Allan (Eds.), News, gender and power (pp. 13–22). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Chambers, D., Steiner, L., & Fleming, C. (2004). Women and journalism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Donovan, J. (2000). Feminist theory: The intellectual traditions (3rd ed.). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Downs, A. (1972). Up and down with ecology: The ‘issue attention cycle’. The Public Interest, 28, 38–50.Google Scholar
- Falk, E. (2010). Women for president: Media bias in nine campaigns. ChampaignL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
- Ferguson, K. (1984). The feminist case against bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Flaounas, I., Ali, O., Lansdall-Welfare, T., De Bie, T., Mosdell, N., Lewis, J., … Cristianini, N. (2013). Research methods in the age of digital journalism: Massive-scale automated analysis of news-content—Topics, style and gender. Digital Journalism, 1(1), 102–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2012.714928.
- Gallego, J., Altes, E., Cantón, M. J., Melus, M. E., & Soriano, J. (2004). Gender stereotyping in the production of news. In M. De Bruin & K. Ross (Eds.), Gender and newsroom cultures: Identities at work (pp. 43–62). Creskill: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
- Gans, H. J. (1972). The famine in American mass-communications research: Comments on Hirsch, Tuchman, and Gecas. American Journal of Sociology, 77(4), 697–705.Google Scholar
- Gans, H. J. (1980). Deciding what's news: A study of CBS evening news, NBC nightly news, Newsweek, and time. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
- Glasser, T. L. (1992). Professionalism and the derision of diversity: The case of the education of journalists. Journal of Communication, 42(2), 131–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00785.x.Google Scholar
- Godbole, N., Srinivasaiah, M., & Skiena, S. (2007). Large-scale sentiment analysis for news and blogs. Proceedings of the third international conference on weblogs and social media, 7(21), 219–222.Google Scholar
- Goddu, J. (1999). “Powerless, public-spirited women,” “angry feminists,” and “the muffin lobby”: Newspaper and magazine coverage of the Canadian advisory council on the status of women, the National Action Committee on the status of women, and REAL women of Canada. Canadian Journal of Communication, 24(1). https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.1999v24n1a1084.
- Grimm, J. W., & Stern, R. N. (1974). Sex roles and internal labor market structures: The “female” semi-professions. Social Problems, 21(5), 690–705.Google Scholar
- Grogan, S. (2014). 8 ways the news media discredits female leaders. Retreived from http://www.dearvagina.com/8-ways-the-news-media-discredits-female-leaders/feminism/.
- Halvorson, H. (2015). No one understands you and what to do about it. Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
- Harriman, A. (1996). Women/men/management (2nd ed.). Westport: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
- Haworth, J. (2000). Women in radio news: Making a difference. In J. Haworth (Ed.), Women & Radio (pp. 250–261). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Izraeli, D. N. (1983). Sex effects or structural effects? An empirical test of Kanter's theory of proportions. Social Forces, 62(1), 153–165.Google Scholar
- Joo, J. H. (2002). The influence of news frames on the audience's attitudes: Examining news stories on women cabinet members. (Unpublished master's thesis). Seoul, Korea: Korea University.Google Scholar
- Kanter, R. M. (1977a). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Kim, K. M., & Kim, Y. J. (2005). Coverage difference of female newsmakers among national newspapers: Influences of journalist gender and gender ratio in the newsroom. Korean Journalism and Information Studies, 29, 7–41.Google Scholar
- Maddux, D. (2004–2009). Editor & Publisher international yearbook, 84th–89th eds. New York: Editor & Publisher Company.Google Scholar
- McCormick, J. (1991, October). Making women’s issues front-page news. Working Woman, p. 78–81.Google Scholar
- Meyers, M. (1997). News coverage of violence against women: Engendering blame. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Pantin, L. (2001, April). When women run newsrooms, women are in the news. Wenews. Retrieved from http://www.womensenews.org/story/media-stories/010406/when-women-run-newsrooms-women-are-the-news.
- Powell, G. N. (1993). Women and men in management. Thousands Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Reskin, B. F., & Roos, P. A. (1990). Job queues, gender queues: Explaining women's inroads into male occupations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Risman, B. J. (1998). Gender vertigo: American families in transition. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Rodgers, S., & Thorson, E. (2003). A socialization perspective on male and female reporting. Journal of Communication, 53(4), 658–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2003.tb02916.x.Google Scholar
- Ross, K. (2009). Gendered media: Women, men, and identity politics. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Rykken, R. (1989). Female editors offer different views of news. Presstime, p. 16–18.Google Scholar
- Saner, E. (2014, September). Feisty, flounce and bossy: The words used to put women down. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/sep/01/feisty-flounce-bossy-words-put-women-down.
- Sanghani, R. (2017, March). Feisty, frigid, and frumpy: 14 words we only use to describe women. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11067727/Downton-Abbey-row-14-words-we-only-use-to-describe-women.html.
- Sebba, A. (1995). Battling for news: The rise of the woman reporter. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
- Shoemaker, P., & Vos, T. (2009). Gatekeeping theory. New York: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
- Shor, E. (2010). In search of a voice: Arab soccer players in the Israeli media. In J. Calabrese (Ed.), Sports and the Middle East: A special edition of viewpoints (pp. 8–10). Washington, DC: The Middle East Institute.Google Scholar
- Shor, E., van de Rijt, A., Ward, C., Blank-Gomel, A., & Skiena, S. (2014b). Time trends in printed news coverage of female subjects, 1880–2008. Journalism Studies, 15(6), 759–773. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2013.834149#.UnZ0YRBGaQI.Google Scholar
- Skar, N. (2004). Women and the Middle East: Power through self-expression. London: IB Tauris.Google Scholar
- Smith, L., & Wright, J. (1998). Women in television news management: Do they make a difference? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
- Splichal, S. L., & Garrison, B. (1995). Gender as a factor in newsroom managers' views on covering the private lives of politicians. Mass Communication Review, 22, 101–108.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
- van Zoonen, L. (1994). Feminist media studies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- van Zoonen, L. (1998). One of the girls? The changing gender of journalism. In C. Carter, G. Branston, & S. Allan (Eds.), News, gender, and power (pp. 33–46). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Weaver, D. H. (1997). Women as journalists. In P. Norris (Ed.), Women, media and politics (pp. 21–56). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, C. L. (1995). Still a man's world: Men who do women's work. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Wood, J. T. (1994). Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture. Belmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- Yoder, J. D., & Sinnett, L. M. (1985). Is it all in the numbers?: A case study of tokenism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9(3), 413–418. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1985.tb00890.x.Google Scholar