Sex Roles

, Volume 80, Issue 5–6, pp 332–346 | Cite as

Room for Improvement: Girls’ and Boys’ Home Environments are Still Gendered

  • David MacPheeEmail author
  • Sarah Prendergast
Original Article


Decades ago, Rheingold and Cook (1975) observed marked gender-typing of preschool children’s playthings and room furnishings. Our purpose was to determine whether this form of implicit gender socialization has been altered by cultural shifts toward more egalitarian attitudes. We also examined potential predictors of children’s room contents, including parents’ self-perceived gender-stereotypical personality traits (i.e., expressivity and instrumentality), sibling composition, and preschool experience as a proxy for exposure to peer pressure to conform to gender norms. In-depth cataloging of 75 U.S. preschoolers’ room contents (n = 39 girls) found significant gender differences that were consistent with the gender-typing documented decades ago. Multilevel modeling showed parents’ expressivity and instrumentality largely to be unrelated to their child’s gender-typed playthings. Also, children in families with same-gender siblings, and girls who had spent more time in preschool, had more gender-typed playthings. Thus, the gender-typing of children’s playthings is attributable to multiple pathways, although familial contributors were minimal in our study. We discuss implications for toy advertising and how parents can be astute consumers, as well as strategies to create gender-neutral preschool classrooms and home environments.


Children’s toys Play preferences Gender stereotypes Gender socialization Parenting Preschoolers 



The authors contributed equally to the present paper. Elaine Blakemore, Campbell Leaper, Carol Martin, and Maureen Perry-Jenkins provided helpful insights during the writing of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript, and we have no conflict of interest related to this study. Both authors contributed equally to the manuscript and so should be considered equal co-authors. Also, the manuscript has not been published previously in part or whole, nor is the manuscript under review in another outlet. As noted in the manuscript, this study was approved by Colorado State University’s Institutional Review Board, and all ethical obligations were met (including informed consent) in the conduct of this study.

Supplementary material

11199_2018_936_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development & Family StudiesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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