Sex Roles

, Volume 80, Issue 3–4, pp 137–146 | Cite as

A Test of the Three-Component Model of Gender-Based Prejudices: Homophobia and Transphobia Are Affected by Raters’ and Targets’ Assigned Sex at Birth

  • Craig T. NagoshiEmail author
  • J. Raven Cloud
  • Louis M. Lindley
  • Julie L. Nagoshi
  • Lucas J. Lothamer
Original Article


The present study tested a three-component model of homophobia and transphobia that differentiates between general and specifically gender-based social threats that motivate these prejudices. A sample of 187 female and 107 male heterosexual U.S. college undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete survey measures of homophobia and transphobia with either born-female (lesbian and female-to-male transgender, respectively) or born-male (gay man and male-to-female transgender, respectively) targets, as well as measures of religious fundamentalism, right wing authoritarianism, aggression, and ambivalent sexism. The participant by target-gender interaction for transphobia showed that transphobia was particularly high for male participants judging born-male transgender targets. Possibly reflecting a fear of any social non-conformity, religious fundamentalism and right wing authoritarianism were positively correlated with homophobia and transphobia regardless of participant or target gender. Possibly reflecting specific fears among men about threats to male privilege, physical aggression proneness was strongly positively correlated with homophobia and transphobia for men judging a male target. Aggression proneness was also positively correlated with homophobia for women judging a female target. Possibly reflecting specific fears among women about threats to female social roles, benevolent sexism was only positively correlated with transphobia for female but not for male participants, with no target-gender difference. Benevolent sexism was also correlated with homophobia for female participants judging a male target. These findings were largely supportive of the three-component model of gender-based prejudice.


Gender Gay/lesbian Transgender Prejudice Attitudes 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

There are no potential conflicts of interest for the manuscript nor for the research on which the manuscript is based.

Ethical Approval

The research protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas at Arlington.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained for all participants in the research.

Supplementary material

11199_2018_919_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


  1. Adams, K. A., Nagoshi, C. T., Filip-Crawford, G., Terrell, H. K., & Nagoshi, J. L. (2016). Components of gender-based prejudice. International Journal of Transgenderism, 17, 185–198. Scholar
  2. Altemeyer, B. (2002). Changes in attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 63–75. Scholar
  3. Altemeyer, B. (1981). Right-wing authoritarianism. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  4. Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (1992). Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2, 113–133. Scholar
  5. Basow, S. A. (1992). Gender: Stereotypes and roles. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  6. Beemyn, B., Curtis, B., Davis, M., & Tubbs, N. J. (2005). Transgender issues on college campuses. New Directions for Student Services, 2005(111), 49–60. Scholar
  7. Bornstein, K. (1994). Gender outlaw: On men, women, and the rest of us. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  8. Bornstein, K. (1998). My gender workbook. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bryant, F. B., & Smith, B. D. (2001). Refining the architecture of aggression: A measurement model for the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 138–167.
  10. Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452–459. Scholar
  11. Carnaghi, A., Maass, A., & Fasoli, F. (2011). Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: The role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1655–1665. Scholar
  12. Carrera-Fernández, M. V., Lameiras-Fernández, M., Rodríguez-Castro, Y., & Vallejo-Medina, P. (2014). Spanish adolescents' attitudes toward transpeople: Proposal and validation of a short form of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale. Journal of Sex Research, 51, 654–666.
  13. Davies, M., Gilston, J., & Rogers, P. (2012). Examining the relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, victim blame, homophobia, gender roles, and ambivalent sexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 2807–2823. Scholar
  14. Falomir-Pichastor, J. M., & Mugny, G. (2009). "I'm not gay…. I'm a real man!": Heterosexual men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1233–1243. Scholar
  15. Gerhardstein, K. R., & Anderson, V. N. (2010). There's more than meets the eye: Facial appearance and evaluations of transsexual people. Sex Roles, 62, 361–373. Scholar
  16. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512. Scholar
  17. Glick, P., Gangl, C., Gibb, S., Klumpner, S., & Weinberg, E. (2007). Defensive reactions to masculinity threat: More negative affect toward effeminate (but not masculine) gay men. Sex Roles, 57, 55–59. Scholar
  18. Glotfelter, M. A. (2012). Undergraduate students’ gender self-esteem and attitudes towards transmen, transwomen, gay men, and lesbian women (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Sycamore Scholars.
  19. Grant, J. M., Mottet, L. A., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J. L., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Retrieved from
  20. Green, J. (2004). Becoming a visible man. Nashville: Vanderbilt. University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hamilton, L. (2007). Trading on heterosexuality: College women’s gender strategies and homophobia. Gender & Society, 21, 145–172. Scholar
  22. Harrison, B. F., & Michelson, M. R. (2018). Gender, masculinity threat, and support for transgender rights: An experimental study. Sex Roles.
  23. Herriot, P. (2009). Religious fundamentalism: Global, local and personal (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Hill, D. B., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2005). The development and validation of the genderism and transphobia scale. Sex Roles, 53, 531–544. Scholar
  25. Hill, E. D., Terrell, H. K., Cohen, A. B., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2010). Social cognitive mediators of the religious fundamentalism-prejudice relationship. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49, 724–739. Scholar
  26. Hopwood, M., & Connors, J. (2002). Heterosexual attitudes to homosexuality: Homophobia at a rural Australian university. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy & Research, 14, 79–94. Scholar
  27. Hudepohl, A. D., Parrott, D. J., & Zeichner, A. (2010). Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: Effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice. Journal of Homosexuality, 57, 1022–1038. Scholar
  28. James, S. E., Herman, J. L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., & Anafi, M. (2016). The report of the 2015 U.S. transgender survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality Scholar
  29. Kando, T. (1972). Passing and stigma management: The case of the transsexual. The Sociological Quarterly, 13, 475–483. Scholar
  30. Kane, E. W. (2006). No way my boys are going to be like that! Parents' responses to children's gender nonconformity. Gender & Society, 20, 149–176. Scholar
  31. Kitzinger, C. (2005). Heteronormativity in action: Reproducing the heterosexual nuclear family in after-hours medical calls. Social Problems, 52, 477–498. Scholar
  32. McCullough, J. R. (2016). Correlates and predictors of anti-transgender prejudice (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University.
  33. McFarland, S. G. (2005). On the eve of war: Authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students’ attitudes toward attacking Iraq. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 360–367. Scholar
  34. Nagoshi, J. L., Adams, K. A., Terrell, H. K., Hill, E. D., Brzuzy, S., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2008). Gender differences in correlates of homophobia and transphobia. Sex Roles, 59, 521–531. Scholar
  35. Nagoshi, J. L., Nagoshi, C. T., & Brzuzy, S. (2014). Gender and sexual identity: Transcending feminist and queer theories. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Norton, A. T., & Herek, G. M. (2013). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward transgender people: Findings from a national probability sample of U.S. adults. Sex Roles, 68, 738–753. Scholar
  37. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783. Scholar
  38. Rahilly, E. P. (2014). The gender binary meets the gender-variant child. Parents' negotiations with childhood gender variance. Gender & Society, 29, 338–361. Scholar
  39. Rankin, S., & Beemyn, G. (2012). Beyond a binary: The lives of gender-nonconforming youth. About Campus, 17, 2–10. Scholar
  40. Rosichan, S. A. (2015). Attitudes towards transpeople, genderism and transphobia as moderated by religious ideologies (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from JEWL Scholar.
  41. Sirin, S. R., McCreary, D. R., & Mahalik, J. R. (2004). Differential reactions to men and women's gender role transgressions: Perceptions of social status, sexual orientation, and value dissimilarity. The Journal of Men's Studies, 12, 119–132. Scholar
  42. Stephan, W. G., & Stephen, C. W. (2000). An integrated threat theory of prejudice. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 23–45). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  43. Stotzer, R. L. (2009). Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 170–179. Scholar
  44. Swearer, S. M., Turner, R. K., Givens, J. E., & Pollack, W. S. (2008). "You're so gay!": Do different forms of bullying matter for adolescent males? School Psychology Review, 37, 160–173.Google Scholar
  45. Tebbe, E. N., & Moradi, B. (2012). Anti-transgender prejudice: A structural equation model of associated constructs. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 251–261. Scholar
  46. Tebbe, E. A., Moradi, B., & Ege, E. (2014). Revised and abbreviated forms of the genderism and transphobia scale: Tools for assessing anti-trans prejudice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61, 581–592. Scholar
  47. Tee, N., & Hegarty, P. (2006). Predicting opposition to the civil rights of trans persons in the United Kingdom. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16, 70–80. Scholar
  48. Tetreault, P., Fette, R., Meidlinger, P., & Hope, D. (2013). Perceptions of campus climate by sexual minorities. Journal of Homosexuality, 60, 947–964. Scholar
  49. Vandello, J. A., Bosson, J. K., Cohen, D., Burnaford, R. M., & Weaver, J. R. (2008). Precarious manhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1325–1339. Scholar
  50. Walch, S. E., Ngamake, S. T., Francisco, J., Stitt, R. L., & Shingler, K. A. (2012). The Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals Scale: Psychometric properties. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 1283–1291.
  51. Warriner, K., Nagoshi, C. T., & Nagoshi, J. L. (2013). Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay/lesbian and heterosexual samples. Journal of Homosexuality, 60, 1317–1334. Scholar
  52. Whitley, B. E. J. (2001). Gender-role variables and attitudes toward homosexuality. Sex Roles, 45, 691–721. Scholar
  53. Whitley Jr., B. E., & Ægisdóttir, S. (2000). The gender belief system, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Sex Roles, 42, 947–967. Scholar
  54. Wilchins, R. A. (2002). Queerer bodies. In J. Nestle, C. Howell, & R. A. Wilchins (Eds.), Gender queer: Voices from beyond the sexual binary (pp. 33–46). Los Angeles: Alyson.Google Scholar
  55. Willoughby, B. L., Hill, D. B., Gonzalez, C. A., Lacorazza, A., Macapagal, R. A., Barton, M. E., & Doty, N. D. (2010). Who hates gender outlaws? A multisite and multinational evaluation of the genderism and transphobia scale. International Journal of Transgenderism, 12, 254–271. Scholar
  56. Worthen, M. G. F. (2013). An argument for separate analyses of attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual men, bisexual women, MtF and FtM transgender individuals. Sex Roles, 68, 703–723. Scholar
  57. Worthen, M. G. (2016). Hetero-cis-normativity and the gendering of transphobia. International Journal of Transgenderism, 17, 31–57. Scholar
  58. Worthen, M. G., Lingiardi, V., & Caristo, C. (2017). The roles of politics, feminism, and religion in attitudes toward LGBT individuals: A cross-cultural study of college students in the USA, Italy, and Spain. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 14, 241–258. Scholar
  59. Wright, L. W., Adams, H. E., & Bernat, J. A. (1999). The Homophobia Scale: Development and validation. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 337–347.
  60. Yost, M. R., & McCarthy, L. (2012). Girls gone wild? Heterosexual women’s same-sex encounters at college parties. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36, 7–24. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Southwest Interdisciplinary Research CenterArizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA
  3. 3.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations