Sex Roles

, Volume 79, Issue 9–10, pp 519–532 | Cite as

The Madonna-Whore Dichotomy: Men Who Perceive Women's Nurturance and Sexuality as Mutually Exclusive Endorse Patriarchy and Show Lower Relationship Satisfaction

  • Orly BareketEmail author
  • Rotem Kahalon
  • Nurit Shnabel
  • Peter Glick
Original Article


The Madonna-Whore Dichotomy (MWD) denotes polarized perceptions of women in general as either “good,” chaste, and pure Madonnas or as “bad,” promiscuous, and seductive whores. Whereas prior theories focused on unresolved sexual complexes or evolved psychological tendencies, feminist theory suggests the MWD stems from a desire to reinforce patriarchy. Surveying 108 heterosexual Israeli men revealed a positive association between MWD endorsement and patriarchy-enhancing ideology as assessed by Social Dominance Orientation (preference for hierarchical social structures), Gender-Specific System Justification (desire to maintain the existing gender system), and sexist attitudes (Benevolent and Hostile Sexism, Sexual Objectification of Women, and Sexual Double Standards). In addition, MWD endorsement negatively predicted men’s romantic relationship satisfaction. These findings support the feminist notion that patriarchal arrangements have negative implications for the well-being of men as well as women. Specifically, the MWD not only links to attitudes that restrict women’s autonomy, but also impairs men’s most intimate relationships with women. Increased awareness of motives underlying the MWD and its psychological costs can help practice professionals (e.g., couple therapists), as well as the general public, to foster more satisfying heterosexual relationships.


Madonna-whore dichotomy Sexism Social dominance orientation Gender-specific system justification Gender attitudes Relationship satisfaction 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

The research was conducted in compliance with APA’s ethical standards in the treatment of human participants, which includes providing informed consent and a full debriefing. The study was approved by Tel-Aviv University Institutional Review Board.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11199_2018_895_MOESM1_ESM.docx (74 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 73 kb)


  1. Aubrey, J. S., Hopper, K. M., & Mbure, W. G. (2011). Check that body! The effects of sexually objectifying music videos on college men's sexual beliefs. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55, 360–379. Scholar
  2. Bartky, S. L. (1990). Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, J. C., & Swim, J. K. (2012). Reducing endorsement of benevolent and modern sexist beliefs: Differential effects of addressing harm versus pervasiveness of benevolent sexism. Social Psychology, 43, 127–137. Scholar
  4. Berdychevsky, L., Poria, Y., & Uriely, N. (2013). Sexual behavior in women's tourist experiences: Motivations, behaviors, and meanings. Tourism Management, 35, 144–155. Scholar
  5. Birnbaum, G. E. (2007). Attachment orientations, sexual functioning, and relationship satisfaction in a community sample of women. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 21–35. Scholar
  6. Birnbaum, G. E., & Gillath, O. (2006). Measuring subgoals of the sexual behavioral system: What is sex good for? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23, 675–701. Scholar
  7. Birnbaum, G. E., & Laser-Brandt, D. (2002). Gender differences in the experience of heterosexual intercourse. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 11, 143–158.Google Scholar
  8. Bordini, G. S., & Sperb, T. M. (2013). Sexual double standard: A review of the literature between 2001 and 2010. Sexuality and Culture, 17, 686–704. Scholar
  9. Bornstein, R. F. (2005). Reconnecting psychoanalysis to mainstream psychology: Challenges and opportunities. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 22, 323–340. Scholar
  10. Brescoll, V. L., Uhlmann, E. L., & Newman, G. E. (2013). The effects of system-justifying motives on endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 891–908. Scholar
  11. Brown, M. A. (2011). Learning from service: The effect of helping on helpers' social dominance orientation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 850–871. Scholar
  12. Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204–232. Scholar
  13. Butzer, B., & Campbell, L. (2008). Adult attachment, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction: A study of married couples. Personal Relationships, 15, 141–154. Scholar
  14. Byers, E. S. (2005). Relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction: A longitudinal study of individuals in long-term relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 42, 113–118. Scholar
  15. Cacioppo, J. T., Cacioppo, S., Gonzaga, G. C., Ogburn, E. L., & Vander Weele, T. J. (2013). Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 10135–10140. Scholar
  16. Calogero, R. M. (2013). Objects don't object: Evidence that self-objectification disrupts women's social activism. Psychological Science, 24, 312–318. Scholar
  17. Camerino, D. C. (c. 1400). The Madonna of humility with the temptation of Eve [Painting]. Retrieved from
  18. Campbell, A. (2006). Feminism and evolutionary psychology. In J. H. Barkow (Ed.), Missing the revolution: Darwinism for social scientists (pp. 63–99). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chapleau, K. M., & Oswald, D. L. (2014). A system justification view of sexual violence: Legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 15, 204–218. Scholar
  20. Chodoff, P. (1966). A critique of Freud's theory of infantile sexuality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 123, 507–518. Scholar
  21. Cochran, S. V., & Rabinowitz, F. E. (2003). Gender-sensitive recommendations for assessment and treatment of depression in men. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 132–140. Scholar
  22. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Conrad, B. K. (2006). Neo-institutionalism, social movements, and the cultural reproduction of a mentalité: Promise keepers reconstruct the Madonna/whore complex. The Sociological Quarterly, 47, 305–331. Scholar
  24. Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2003). Sexual double standards: A review and methodological critique of two decades of research. Journal of Sex Research, 40, 13–26. Scholar
  25. Curran, P. (2004). Development of a new measure of men's objectification of women: Factor structure test retest validity. Retrieved from psychology honors projects, digital commons @ Illinois Wesleyan university.
  26. De Beauvoir, S. (1949). Le deuxième sexe [The second sex]. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  27. Delany, S. (2007). Writing woman: Sex, class and literature, medieval and modern. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Dunlop, A. (2002). Flesh and the feminine: Early-renaissance images of the Madonna with eve at her feet. Oxford Art Journal, 25, 127–148. Scholar
  29. Dworkin, A. (1981). Pornography: Men possessing women. London: The Women's Press Limited.Google Scholar
  30. Enloe, C. H. (1983). Does khaki become you? The militarization of women's lives. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  31. Erb, C. (1993). The Madonna's reproduction(s): Miéville, Godard, and the figure of Mary. Journal of Film and Video, 45, 40–56.Google Scholar
  32. Faludi, S. (2009). Backlash: The undeclared war against American women. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fassinger, R. E., & Arseneau, J. R. (2008). Diverse women's sexualities. In F. L. Denmark & M. A. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 484–508). Westport: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G* power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1149–1160. Scholar
  35. Fausto-Sterling, A., Gowaty, P. A., & Zuk, M. (1997). Evolutionary psychology and Darwinian feminism. Feminist Studies, 23, 403–418. Scholar
  36. Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Forbes, J. S. (1996). Disciplining women in contemporary discourses of sexuality. Journal of Gender Studies, 5, 177–189. Scholar
  38. Fowers, A. F., & Fowers, B. J. (2010). Social dominance and sexual self-schema as moderators of sexist reactions to female subtypes. Sex Roles, 62, 468–480. Scholar
  39. Freud, S. (1905). Drei abhandlungen zur sexualtheorie [three essays on the theory of sexuality]. Berlin: Leipzig und Wien.Google Scholar
  40. Freud, S. (1912). Über die allgemeinste erniedrigung des liebeslebens [the most prevalent form of degradation in erotic life]. Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen, 4, 40–50.Google Scholar
  41. Frith, H. (2009). Sexual scripts, sexual refusals, and rape. In M. Horvath & J. Brown (Eds.), Rape: Challenging contemporary thinking (pp. 99–122). Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  42. Frith, H., & Kitzinger, C. (2001). Reformulating sexual script theory: Developing a discursive psychology of sexual negotiation. Theory and Psychology, 11, 209–232. Scholar
  43. Funk, J. L., & Rogge, R. D. (2007). Testing the ruler with item response theory: Increasing precision of measurement for relationship satisfaction with the couples satisfaction index. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 572–583. Scholar
  44. Gagnon, J. H., & Simon, W. (1973). Sexual conduct: The social sources of human sexuality. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  45. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512. Scholar
  46. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56, 109–118. Scholar
  47. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2011). Ambivalent sexism revisited. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 530–535. Scholar
  48. Glick, P., Fiske, S. T., Mladinic, A., Saiz, J., Abrams, D., Masser, B., … Lopez, W. L. (2000). Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 763–775. Scholar
  49. Glick, P., Lameiras, M., Fiske, S. T., Eckes, T., Masser, B., Volpato, C., … Wells, R. (2004). Bad but bold: Ambivalent attitudes toward men predict gender inequality in 16 nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 713–728. Scholar
  50. Gottschall, J., Allison, E., De Rosa, J., & Klockeman, K. (2006). Can literary study be scientific? Results of an empirical search for the virgin/whore dichotomy. Interdisciplinary Literary Studies, 7, 1–17.Google Scholar
  51. Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576. Scholar
  52. Greene, K., & Faulkner, S. L. (2005). Gender, belief in the sexual double standard, and sexual talk in heterosexual dating relationships. Sex Roles, 53, 239–251. Scholar
  53. Hammond, M. D., & Overall, N. C. (2013). Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: Fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1585–1599. Scholar
  54. Hanisch, C. (1969). The personal is political. Retrieved from
  55. Hartmann, U. (2009). Sigmund Freud and his impact on our understanding of male sexual dysfunction. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6, 2332–2339. Scholar
  56. Haxell, N. A. (2000). "Ces dames du cirque": A taxonomy of male desire in nineteenth-century French literature and art. MLN, 115, 783–800. Retrieved from Accessed 5 Sep 2016.
  57. Heiman, J. R., Long, J. S., Smith, S. N., Fisher, W. A., Sand, M. S., & Rosen, R. C. (2011). Sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in midlife and older couples in five countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 741–753. Scholar
  58. Hoffman, I. Z. (2009). Doublethinking our way to "scientific" legitimacy: The desiccation of human experience. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 1043–1069. Scholar
  59. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. Scholar
  60. Infanger, M., Rudman, L. A., & Sczesny, S. (2014). Sex as a source of power? Backlash against self-sexualizing women. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19, 1–15. Scholar
  61. Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: Gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scholar
  62. Jackman, M. R. (1994). The velvet glove: Paternalism and conflict in gender, class, and race relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  63. Jeffreys, S. (2005). Beauty and misogyny: Harmful cultural practices in the west. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Jones, S. L., & Hostler, H. R. (2002). Sexual script theory: An integrative exploration of the possibilities and limits of sexual self-definition. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 30, 120–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Josephs, L. (2006). The impulse to infidelity and oedipal splitting. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 87, 423–437. Scholar
  66. Jost, J. T., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: Consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 498–509. Scholar
  67. Jost, J. T., Kivetz, Y., Rubini, M., Guermandi, G., & Mosso, C. (2005). System-justifying functions of complementary regional and ethnic stereotypes: Cross-national evidence. Social Justice Research, 18, 305–333. Scholar
  68. Kane, E. W., & Schippers, M. (1996). Men's and women's beliefs about gender and sexuality. Gender and Society, 10, 650–665. Scholar
  69. Kaplan, H. S. (1988). Intimacy disorders and sexual panic states. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 14, 3–12. Scholar
  70. Kay, A. C., & Jost, J. T. (2003). Complementary justice: Effects of "poor but happy" and "poor but honest" stereotype exemplars on system justification and implicit activation of the justice motive. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 823–837. Scholar
  71. Kravetz, S., Drory, Y., & Shaked, A. (1999). The Israeli Sexual Behavior Inventory (ISBI): Scale construction and preliminary validation. Sexuality and Disability, 17, 115–128. Scholar
  72. Laumann, E. O., Paik, A., Glasser, D. B., Kang, J. H., Wang, T., Levinson, B., … Gingell, C. (2006). A cross-national study of subjective sexual well-being among older women and men: Findings from the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 143–159. Scholar
  73. Lawrance, K., & Byers, E. S. (1998). Interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction questionnaire. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, R. Baureman, G. Schreer, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Sexuality related measures: A compendium (2nd ed., pp. 514–519). Thousand Oaks: Gage.Google Scholar
  74. Levin, S., & Sidanius, J. (1999). Social dominance and social identity in the United States and Israel: Ingroup favoritism or outgroup derogation? Political Psychology, 20, 99–126. Scholar
  75. Little, R. J. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202. Scholar
  76. Macdonald, M. (1995). Representing women: Myths of femininity in the popular media. New York: St. Martin's Press Inc..Google Scholar
  77. MacKinnon, C. A. (1987). Feminism unmodified: Discourses on life and law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  78. McClelland, G. H. (2002). Nasty data: Unruly, ill-mannered observations can ruin your analysis. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (pp. 393–411). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Moor, A. (2010). She dresses to attract, he perceives seduction: A gender gap in attribution of intent to women's revealing style of dress and its relation to blaming the victims of sexual violence. Journal of International Women's Studies, 11, 115–127.Google Scholar
  80. Muehlenhard, C. L., & McCoy, M. L. (1991). Double standard/double bind: The sexual double-standard and women's communication about sex. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 447–461. Scholar
  81. Munford, R. (2007). Wake up and smell the lipgloss. In S. Gillis, G. Howie, & R. Munford (Eds.), Third wave feminism (pp. 266–279). London: Palgrave Macmillan. Scholar
  82. Nussbaum, M. C. (1999). Sex and social justice. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Papp, L. M., Danielewicz, J., & Cayemberg, C. (2012). "Are we Facebook official?" implications of dating partners' Facebook use and profiles for intimate relationship satisfaction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 85–90. Scholar
  84. Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2016). Blatant domination and subtle exclusion: The mediation of moral inclusion on the relationship between social dominance orientation and prejudice. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 182–186. Scholar
  85. Paul, J. (2013). Madonna and whore: The many faces of Penelope in Camerini's Ulysses. In K. P. Nikoloutsos (Ed.), Ancient Greek women in film (pp. 139–162). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scholar
  86. Pomeroy, S. B. (1975). Goddesses, whores, wives, and slaves: Women in classical antiquity. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  87. Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable relevant to social roles and intergroup relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741–763. Scholar
  88. Quintana, S. M., & Maxwell, S. E. (1999). Implications of recent developments in structural equation modeling for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 27, 485–527. Scholar
  89. Reiss, I. L. (1960). Premarital sexual standards in America. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  90. Reiss, I. L. (1964). The scaling of premarital sexual permissiveness. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 26, 188–198. Scholar
  91. Rollero, C., Glick, P., & Tartaglia, S. (2014). Psychometric properties of short versions of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory. TPM: Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 149–159.Google Scholar
  92. Rubin, G. (1975). The traffic in women: Notes on the "political economy" of sex. In E. Lewin (Ed.), Feminist anthropology: A reader (pp. 87–106). New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  93. Rudman, L. A., & Borgida, E. (1995). The afterglow of construct accessibility: The behavioral consequences of priming men to view women as sexual objects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 493–517. Scholar
  94. Rudman, L. A., & Phelan, J. E. (2007). The interpersonal power of feminism: Is feminism good for romantic relationships? Sex Roles, 57, 787–799. Scholar
  95. Rudman, L. A., Moss-Racusin, C. A., Phelan, J. E., & Nauts, S. (2012). Status incongruity and backlash effects: Defending the gender hierarchy motivates prejudice against female leaders. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 165–179. Scholar
  96. Rudman, L. A., Fetterolf, J. C., & Sanchez, D. T. (2013). What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 250–263. Scholar
  97. Rust, J., & Golombok, S. (1985). The Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 63–64. Scholar
  98. Sanchez, D. T., Crocker, J., & Boike, K. R. (2005). Doing gender in the bedroom: Investing in gender norms and the sexual experience. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1445–1455. Scholar
  99. Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177. Scholar
  100. Segal, L. (2007). Slow motion: Changing masculinities, changing men (3rd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Scholar
  101. Sev'er, A., & Yurdakul, G. (2001). Culture of honor, culture of change: A feminist analysis of honor killings in rural Turkey. Violence Against Women, 7, 964–998. Scholar
  102. Sharoni, S. (1992). Every woman is an occupied territory: The politics of militarism and sexism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Journal of Gender Studies, 1, 447–462. Scholar
  103. Shnabel, N., Bar-Anan, Y., Kende, A., Bareket, O., & Lazar, Y. (2016a). Help to perpetuate traditional gender roles: Benevolent sexism increases engagement in dependency-oriented cross-gender helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110, 55–75. Scholar
  104. Shnabel, N., Dovidio, J. F., & Levin, Z. (2016b). But it's my right! Framing effects on support for empowering policies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 63, 36–49. Scholar
  105. Shook, N. J., Hopkins, P. D., & Koech, J. M. (2016). The effect of intergroup contact on secondary group attitudes and social dominance orientation. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19, 328–342. Scholar
  106. Sibley, C. G., & Wilson, M. S. (2004). Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes toward positive and negative sexual female subtypes. Sex Roles, 51, 687–696. Scholar
  107. Sibley, C. G., Wilson, M. S., & Duckitt, J. (2007). Antecedents of men's hostile and benevolent sexism: The dual roles of social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 160–172. Scholar
  108. Silverstein, J. L. (1998). Countertransference in marital therapy for infidelity. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 24, 293–301. Scholar
  109. Simon, W., & Gagnon, J. J. (1986). Sexual scripts: Permanence and change. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 97–120. Scholar
  110. Sprecher, S. (2002). Sexual satisfaction in premarital relationships: Associations with satisfaction, love, commitment, and stability. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 190–196. Scholar
  111. Sprecher, S. (2011). Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale. In T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (3rd ed., pp. 511–512). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  112. Sprecher, S. (2013). Attachment style and sexual permissiveness: The moderating role of gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 428–432. Scholar
  113. Sprecher, S., & Cate, R. M. (2004). Sexual satisfaction and sexual expression as predictors of relationship satisfaction and stability. In J. H. Harvey, A. Wenzel, & S. Sprecher (Eds.), The handbook of sexuality in close relationships (pp. 235–256). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  114. Sprecher, S., & Hatfield, E. (1996). Premarital sexual standards among US college students: Comparison with Russian and Japanese students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 261–288. Scholar
  115. Sprecher, S., McKinney, K., Walsh, R., & Anderson, C. (1988). A revision of the Reiss premarital sexual permissiveness scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 821–828. Scholar
  116. Stevens, E. P. (1973). Marianismo: The other face of machismo in Latin America. In A. Pescatello (Ed.), Female and male in Latin America (pp. 89–101). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  117. Symons, D. (1979). The evolution of human sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  119. Tanenbaum, L. (2000). Slut!: Growing up female with a bad reputation. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  120. Tanzer, D. (1985). Real men don't eat strong women: The virgin-Madonna-whore complex updated. The Journal of Psychohistory, 12, 487–495.Google Scholar
  121. Tavris, C., & Wade, C. (1984). The longest war: Sex differences in perspective. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  122. Taylor, L. D. (2005). Effects of visual and verbal sexual television content and perceived realism on attitudes and beliefs. Journal of Sex Research, 42, 130–137. Scholar
  123. Tolman, D. L., & Tolman, D. L. (2009). Dilemmas of desire: Teenage girls talk about sexuality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Travis, C. B., & White, J. W. (Eds.). (2000). Sexuality, society, and feminism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Scholar
  125. Tropp, L. (2006). “Faking a sonogram”: Representations of motherhood on Sex and the City. The Journal of Popular Culture, 39, 861–877. Scholar
  126. United Nations Development Programme. (2016). Human Development Report 2016. Retrieved from Accessed 6 Jun 2017.
  127. Vaillancourt, T., & Sharma, A. (2011). Intolerance of sexy peers: Intrasexual competition among women. Aggressive Behavior, 37, 569–577. Scholar
  128. Vandello, J. A., Bosson, J. K., Cohen, D., Burnaford, R. M., & Weaver, J. R. (2008). Precarious manhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1325–1339. Scholar
  129. Welldon, E. V. (1992). Mother, Madonna, whore: The idealization and denigration of motherhood. London, UK: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  130. Welles, C. E. (2005). Breaking the silence surrounding female adolescent sexual desire. Women & Therapy, 28, 31–45. Scholar
  131. Weston, R., & Gore, P. A., Jr. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 719–751. Scholar
  132. Winter, D. D. N. (2002). (En)gendering sustainable development. In P. Schmuck & W. P. Schultz (Eds.), Psychology of sustainable development (pp. 79–95). Norwell: Kluwer. Scholar
  133. Wolf, N. (1997). Promiscuities: The secret struggle for womanhood. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  134. Wright, R. (2010). The moral animal: Why we are, the way we are: The new science of evolutionary psychology. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  135. Wright, P. J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2013). Activating the centerfold syndrome: Recency of exposure, sexual explicitness, past exposure to objectifying media. Communication Research, 42, 864–897. Scholar
  136. Young, C. (1993). New Madonna/whore syndrome: Feminism, sexuality, and sexual harassment. New York Law School Law Review, 38, 257–288.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The School of Psychological SciencesTel-Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyLawrence UniversityAppletonUSA

Personalised recommendations