Dancing Backwards in High Heels: Female Professors Experience More Work Demands and Special Favor Requests, Particularly from Academically Entitled Students
- 14k Downloads
Although the number of U.S. female professors has risen steadily in recent years, female professors are still subject to different student expectations and treatment. Students continue to perceive and expect female professors to be more nurturing than male professors are. We examined whether students may consequently request more special favors from female professors. In a survey of professors (n = 88) across the United States, Study 1 found that female (versus male) professors reported getting more requests for standard work demands, special favors, and friendship behaviors, with the latter two mediating the professor gender effect on professors’ self-reported emotional labor. Study 2 utilized an experimental design using a fictitious female or male professor, with college student participants (n = 121) responding to a scenario in which a special favor request might be made of the professor. The results indicated that academically entitled students (i.e., those who feel deserving of success in college regardless of effort/performance) had stronger expectations that a female (versus male) professor would grant their special favor requests. Those expectations consequently increased students’ likelihood of making the requests and of exhibiting negative emotional and behavioral reactions to having those requests denied. This work highlights the extra burdens felt by female professors. We discuss possible moderators of these effects as well as the importance of developing strategies for preventing them.
KeywordsAcademic entitlement Sex discrimination Gender equity College teachers Stereotypes Teacher student interaction Emotional labor Workload
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The research presented within this manuscript was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines set by the American Psychological Association and the Institutional Review Boards of the relevant authors’ institutions. This manuscript is not currently under review at any other journal, nor has any portion of it been published previously.
- Barreto, M., Ryan, M., & Schmitt, M. (Eds.). (2009). The glass ceiling in the 21 st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Basow, S. A. (1998). Student evaluations: The role of gender bias and teaching styles. In L. H. Collins, J. C. Chrisler, & K. Quina (Eds.), Career strategies for women in academe: Arming Athena (pp. 135–156). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bernard, J. (1964). Academic women. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
- Burns-Glover, A. L., & Veith, D. J. (1995). Revisiting gender and teaching evaluations: Sex still makes a difference. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 69–80. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/openview/4ec36057b25415f8d833f02e48629075/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1819046.Google Scholar
- Caplan, P. (1993). Lifting a ton of feathers: A woman’s guide to surviving in the academic world. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Chowning, K., & Campbell, N. J. (2009). Development and validation of a measure of academic entitlement: Individual differences in students’ externalized responsibility and entitled expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 982–997. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., Kwan, V. S. Y., Glick, P., Demoulin, S., Leyens, J., ... Ziegler, R. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: Toward universal similarities and some differences. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466608X314935.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eagly, A. H., & Sczesny, S. (2009). Stereotypes about women, men, and leaders: Have times changed? In M. Barreto, M. K. Ryan, & M. T. Schmitt (Eds.), The glass ceiling in the 21 st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality (pp. 21–47). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Elias, S. M., & Loomis, R. J. (2004). The effect of instructor gender and race/ethnicity on gaining compliance in the classroom. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 937–958. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02578.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.528.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- French Jr., J., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150–167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [white paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf
- Jiang, L., Tripp, T. M., & Hong, P. Y. (2017). College instruction is not so stress free after all: A qualitative and quantitative study of academic entitlement, uncivil behaviors, and instructor strain and burnout. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1532-2998/earlyview.
- Marsh, H. W., & Dunkin, M. J. (1992). Students’ evaluations of university teaching: A multidimensional perspective. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 8, pp. 143–233). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
- Moshavi, D., Dana, S., Standifird, S., & Pons, F. (2008). Gender effects in the business school classroom: A social power perspective. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 10, 3–17.Google Scholar
- National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. (2015). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2015. Special report NSF 15–311. Arlington, VA. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd/.
- New York Times. (2006, Sept. 14). Quotes from Ann Richards. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/14/us/richards_quotes.html?mcubz=0. Accessed 29 Sept 2017.
- Rudman, L. A., Moss-Racusin, C. A., Phelan, J. E., & Nauts, S. (2012). Status incongruity and backlash effects: Defending the gender hierarchy motivates prejudice against female leaders. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 165–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sandler, B. R., & Hall, R. M. (1993). Women faculty at work in the classroom, or, why it still hurts to be a woman in labor. Washington, DC: Center for Women Policy Studies.Google Scholar
- Schein, V. E., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T., & Liu, J. (1996). Think manager – think male: A global phenomenon? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 33–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199601)17:1<33::AID-JOB778>3.0.CO;2-F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. (2011). About Carnegie Classification. Retrieved from http://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/.