Sex Roles

, Volume 79, Issue 3–4, pp 190–205 | Cite as

Objectifying Women’s Bodies is Acceptable from an Intimate Perpetrator, at Least for Female Sexists

  • María Lameiras-FernándezEmail author
  • Susan T. Fiske
  • Antonio González Fernández
  • José F. Lopez
Original Article


Objectification of the female body is generating much research. Nevertheless, this has revealed little about whether women’s evaluations depend on the level of psychological intimacy with the perpetrator of that objectification. Intimacy theory predicts that objectifying comments would seem more acceptable coming from a close partner, especially for sexist women. The present study begins to fill these gaps by analyzing responses from 301 heterosexual/bisexual adult women in the United States (M age = 37.02, range = 18–72) to appearance and sexual body comments made by four different male perpetrators: strangers, colleagues, friends, or partners. Measures assessed women’s perceptions of objectification, as well as reported enjoyment of these comments. As long as they were not negative, comments from heterosexual partners were perceived as the least objectifying and enjoyed the most; comments from colleagues, strangers, and friends were linked with greater objectification and less enjoyment. Additionally, sexist attitudes toward men and women—but more clearly toward men—linked with objectification and enjoyment. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed.


Objectification Sexualization Sexual harassment Romantic relationship Body image Heterosexuality 



The first author was supported by the Government of Spain, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport State Program of Promotion of Talent and Employability R + D, State Sub-program of Mobility (State Plan of Research and Technology and Innovation 2013-2016).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors don’t have any conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

The research on which this article is based was reviewed by the IRB or human subjects committee of Princeton University. Active informed consent was required.

Supplementary material

11199_2017_862_MOESM1_ESM.docx (58 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 58 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Lameiras-Fernández
    • 1
    Email author
  • Susan T. Fiske
    • 2
  • Antonio González Fernández
    • 1
  • José F. Lopez
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversidad de VigoOurenseSpain
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

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