, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 307–322 | Cite as

A transition stage co-citation criterion for identifying the awakeners of sleeping beauty publications

  • Hui FangEmail author


The role played by citing papers in triggering the recognition of sleeping beauty (SB) papers may be concealed by the traditional co-citation criteria for screening awakeners for two reasons: the increasing number of citations received by the SB and/or the decay of co-citations between the citing paper and the SB after the SB’s awakening. Here, we used the co-citation frequency of the SB and the citing paper for the shortest period immediately following the publication of the citing paper during which the SB received at least a specified number of citations to identify which of the citing papers published before or shortly after the SB’s awakening served as the ‘awakener’. This proposed transition stage co-citation criterion can disclose the important role of awakeners in awakening SBs, which might be neglected by the traditional co-citation criterion. Examples show that this method can identify awakener(s) that the traditional co-citation criteria fail to identify for some SBs, especially for those that do not have an awakener according to the traditional criteria. Another advantage of the proposed method is that once determined, the results for identifying awakeners by the proposed method do not vary with time. A modification of the transition stage co-citation criterion to flexibly treat SBs with fewer citations is also provided.


Sleeping beauty Awakener Recognition Co-citation criterion Transition stage co-citation ratio 


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Electronic Science and EngineeringNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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