Triple helix in the science and technology innovation centers of China from the perspective of mutual information: a comparative study between Beijing and Shanghai

  • Weimin Kang
  • Shuliang ZhaoEmail author
  • Wei Song
  • Tao Zhuang


In this study, we measure the systemness of the triple helix (TH) relationship of universities, industries, and governments (UIGs) of Beijing and Shanghai science and technology innovation centers from the perspectives of horizontal comparison and vertical evolution. Information entropy theory and TH indicators are used to measure the author’s institutional information based on the Web of Science core collection database from 2008 to 2017. The TH network is measured by mutual information among institutions. Research reveals that relative to governments and industries, universities are the main force of innovation. University–government bilateral cooperation represents the tightest type of network in Shanghai. By contrast, university–industry bilateral cooperation in Beijing is the tightest in latest years. The innovation system of UIG cooperation in Beijing and Shanghai has started to take shape. However, the tightness of TH relationships in both cities displayed long-term trends of weakening, and the centrifugal force of each innovation subject was greater than the centripetal force. Accordingly, we propose policy recommendations to optimize the TH innovation network of science and technology innovation centers.


Mutual information City innovation system Triple helix indicators Collaborative innovation 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Youth Science Fund Project (No. 71701191) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M602041). At the same time, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to Editor-in-Chief, Wolfgang Glänzel, and the three anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments, which has improved the quality of this research. Finally, we are very grateful to the University of Science and Technology of China for providing good research resources and environment.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weimin Kang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuliang Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wei Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tao Zhuang
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Public AffairsUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  2. 2.Research Center for Scientific and Technological Innovation and Regional DevelopmentUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  3. 3.School of Economics and ManagementWeifang UniversityWeifangChina

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