Advertisement

Small Business Economics

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 569–590 | Cite as

The Digital Entrepreneurial Ecosystem—a critique and reconfiguration

  • Abraham K. SongEmail author
Article

Abstract

Sussan and Acs (Small Business Economics, 49(1), 55–73, 2017) proposed the “Digital Entrepreneurial Ecosystem” (DEE), a novel framework to guide our understanding of entrepreneurship in the digital age. By integrating literatures on digital ecosystem and entrepreneurial ecosystem, they brought to attention the importance of examining entrepreneurship as an outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic entities represented by four concepts: Digital User Citizenship, Digital Entrepreneurship, Digital Infrastructure Governance, and Digital Marketplace. This paper revisits, critiques, and refines the framework through the following reconfigurations: (1) Digital User Citizenship is reintroduced as a heterogeneous group of users differentiated by their primary activity, as either consumers or producers. (2) Digital Technology Entrepreneurship encompasses all agents that build complementary products and services connecting to platforms. (3) Digital Multi-sided Platform is the intermediary for transaction of goods and services, and also a medium of knowledge exchanges that enables and facilitates experimentation, entrepreneurial innovation, and value creation. The main contribution of the paper is in the reconfigurations that clearly lay the ground for a more sustainable DEE—one in which user privacy is protected, platform efficiency enhanced, market competition encouraged, and digital infrastructure secured.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Matchmakers Digital infrastructure Digital governance Digital citizenship Multi-sided platforms Information technologies 

JEL classification

J24 ∙ L26 ∙ M13 ∙ O3 ∙ O11 ∙ P40 ∙ P00 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper draws on the research initiated by Sussan and Acs (2017). I thank Dr. László Szerb and participants at the entrepreneurship workshop hosted by the Center for Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, Schar School of Policy and Government, at George Mason University in October 2018 for the helpful comments and suggestions. I would like to thank especially Dr. Zoltan Acs and Dr. David Hart for helpful comments. Any remaining errors are mine.

References

  1. Abraham, K., Haltiwanger, J., Sandusky, K., & Spletzer, J. (2018). Measuring the gig economy: Current knowledge and open issues (no. w24950). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.  https://doi.org/10.3386/w24950.Google Scholar
  2. Acemoglu, D., & Johnson, S. (2005). Unbundling institutions. Journal of Political Economy, 113(5), 949–995.  https://doi.org/10.1086/432166.Google Scholar
  3. Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., & Szerb, L. (2014). National systems of entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications. Research Policy, 43(3), 476–494.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2013.08.016.Google Scholar
  4. Acs, Z. J., Estrin, S., Mickiewicz, T., & Szerb, L. (2018). Entrepreneurship, institutional economics, and economic growth: An ecosystem perspective. Small Business Economics, 51(2), 501–514.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-0013-9.Google Scholar
  5. Acs, Z.J., Parsons, W., Tracy, S., (2008). High-impact firms: Gazelles revisited (no. 328). The Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, Washington, DC 20037.Google Scholar
  6. Acs, Z. J., Stam, E., Audretsch, D. B., & O’Connor, A. (2017). The lineages of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Small Business Economics, 49(1), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-017-9864-8.Google Scholar
  7. Adner, R. (2017). Ecosystem as structure: An actionable construct for strategy. Journal of Management, 43(1), 39–58.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316678451.Google Scholar
  8. Adner, R. (2006). Match your innovation strategy to your innovation ecosystem. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2006/04/match-your-innovation-strategy-to-your-innovation-ecosystem.
  9. Adner, R., & Kapoor, R. (2010). Value creation in innovation ecosystems: How the structure of technological interdependence affects firm performance in new technology generations. Strategic Management Journal, 31(3), 306–333.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.821.Google Scholar
  10. Arthur, W. B. (1989). Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events. The Economic Journal, 99(394), 116–131.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2234208.Google Scholar
  11. Athey, S., & Luca, M. (2019). Economists (and economics) in tech companies. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 33(1), 209–230.  https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.33.1.209.Google Scholar
  12. Audretsch, D. B., Cunningham, J. A., Kuratko, D. F., Lehmann, E. E., & Menter, M. (2018). Entrepreneurial ecosystems: Economic, technological, and societal impacts. The Journal of Technology Transfer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-018-9690-4.
  13. Autio, E., & Thomas, L. D. W. (2014). Innovation ecosystem. In The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Autio, E., Nambisan, S., Thomas, L. D. W., & Wright, M. (2018). Digital affordances, spatial affordances, and the genesis of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(1), 72–95.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1266.Google Scholar
  15. Bahrami, H., & Evans, S. (1995). Flexible re-cycling and high-technology entrepreneurship. California Management Review, 37(3), 62–90.Google Scholar
  16. Bailetti, T. (2012). Technology entrepreneurship: Overview, definition, and distinctive aspects. Technology Innovation Management Review, 2(2), 5–12.  https://doi.org/10.22215/timreview/520.Google Scholar
  17. Baldwin, C., Hienerth, C., & von Hippel, E. (2006). How user innovations become commercial products: A theoretical investigation and case study. Research Policy, 35(9), 1291–1313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2006.04.012.Google Scholar
  18. Baller, S., Dutta, S., & Lanvin, B. (2016). The global information technology report 2016: innovating in the digital economy. Retrieved from http://www.deslibris.ca/ID/10090686
  19. Baumol, W. J. (1996). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(1), 3–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(94)00014-X.Google Scholar
  20. Beckman, C., Eisenhardt, K., Kotha, S., Meyer, A., & Rajagopalan, N. (2012). Technology entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 6(2), 89–93.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1134.Google Scholar
  21. Belanger, F., Hiller, J. S., & Smith, W. J. (2002). Trustworthiness in electronic commerce: The role of privacy, security, and site attributes. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3), 245–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8687(02)00018-5.Google Scholar
  22. Berthon, P. R., Pitt, L. F., McCarthy, I., & Kates, S. M. (2007). When customers get clever: Managerial approaches to dealing with creative consumers. Business Horizons, 50(1), 39–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2006.05.005.Google Scholar
  23. Boley, H., & Chang, E. (2007). Digital ecosystems: Principles and semantics. In Inaugural IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies. Cairns Australia.Google Scholar
  24. Bresnahan, T. F., & Trajtenberg, M. (1995). General purpose technologies ‘engines of growth’? Journal of Econometrics, 65(1), 83–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(94)01598-T.Google Scholar
  25. Bresnahan, T. F., Davis, J. P., & Yin, P.-L. (2015). Economic value creation in mobile applications. In The Changing Frontier: Rethinking Science and Innovation Policy (pp. 233–286). University of Chicago Press.  https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226286860.001.0001.
  26. Burtch, G., Carnahan, S., & Greenwood, B. N. (2018). Can you gig it? An empirical examination of the gig economy and entrepreneurial activity. Management Science, 64(12), 5497–5520.  https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2017.2916.Google Scholar
  27. Cavallo, A., Ghezzi, A., & Balocco, R. (2018). Entrepreneurial ecosystem research: Present debates and future directions. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-018-0526-3.
  28. Chatterji, A., Glaeser, E., & Kerr, W. (2014). Clusters of entrepreneurship and innovation. Innovation Policy and the Economy, 14, 129–166.  https://doi.org/10.1086/674023.Google Scholar
  29. Chen, H., Gompers, P., Kovner, A., & Lerner, J. (2010). Buy local? The geography of venture capital. Journal of Urban Economics, 67(1), 90–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2009.09.013.Google Scholar
  30. Christensen, C. M., & Bower, J. L. (1996). Customer power, strategic investment, and the failure of leading firms. Strategic Management Journal, 17(3), 197–218.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199603)17:3<197::AID-SMJ804>3.0.CO;2-U.Google Scholar
  31. Clarysse, B., Wright, M., Bruneel, J., & Mahajan, A. (2014). Creating value in ecosystems: Crossing the chasm between knowledge and business ecosystems. Research Policy, 43(7), 1164–1176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2014.04.014.Google Scholar
  32. Claussen, J., Kretschmer, T., & Mayrhofer, P. (2013). The effects of rewarding user engagement: The case of Facebook apps. Information Systems Research, 24(1), 186–200.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1120.0467.Google Scholar
  33. Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4(16), 386–405.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2626876.Google Scholar
  34. Cohen, B. (2006). Sustainable valley entrepreneurial ecosystems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15(1), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.428.Google Scholar
  35. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (2000). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. In R. L. Cross & S. B. Israelit (Eds.), Strategic learning in a knowledge economy (pp. 39–67). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-7223-8.50005-8.Google Scholar
  36. Cooke, P. (2016). The virtues of variety in regional innovation systems and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 2(1).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-016-0036-x.
  37. Cramer, J., & Krueger, A. B. (2016). Disruptive change in the taxi business: The case of Uber. American Economic Review, 106(5), 177–182.  https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20161002.Google Scholar
  38. Delgado, M., Porter, M. E., & Stern, S. (2010). Clusters and entrepreneurship. Journal of Economic Geography, 10(4), 495–518.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbq010.Google Scholar
  39. Delmar, F., Davidsson, P., & Gartner, W. B. (2003). Arriving at the high-growth firm. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 189–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(02)00080-0.Google Scholar
  40. de Reuver, M., Sørensen, C., & Basole, R. C. (2018). The digital platform: A research agenda. Journal of Information Technology, 33(2), 124–135.  https://doi.org/10.1057/s41265-016-0033-3.Google Scholar
  41. Dini, P., Iqani, M., & Mansell, R. (2011). The (im)possibility of interdisciplinarity: Lessons from constructing a theoretical framework for digital ecosystems. Culture, Theory and Critique, 52(1), 3–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14735784.2011.621668.Google Scholar
  42. Dobson, P. W., & Inderst, R. (2008). The waterbed effect: Where buying and selling power come together the future of monopoly and monopolization symposium. Wisconsin Law Review, 2008, 331–358.Google Scholar
  43. Doganova, L., & Eyquem-Renault, M. (2009). What do business models do? Research Policy, 38(10), 1559–1570.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2009.08.002.Google Scholar
  44. Dreischmeier, R., Close, Karalee, & Trichet Philippe. (2015). The digital imperative. In BCG Perspectives (pp. 2–6). The Boston Consulting Group.Google Scholar
  45. Easley, D., & Kleinberg, J. (2010). Networks, crowds, and markets: Reasoning about a highly connected world. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Eckhardt, J. T., & Shane, S. A. (2003). Opportunities and entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29(3), 333–349.  https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630302900304.Google Scholar
  47. Eisenmann, T. R., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2009). Opening platforms: How, when and why? In Platforms, markets and innovation (pp. 131–162).Google Scholar
  48. Eisenmann, T., Parker, G., & Alstyne, M. W. V. (2006). Strategies for two-sided markets. Harvard Business Review, 84(10), 92–101.Google Scholar
  49. Ekbia, H. R. (2009). Digital artifacts as quasi-objects: Qualification, mediation, and materiality. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(12), 2554–2566.  https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21189.Google Scholar
  50. Erdogan, B., Kant, R., Miller, A., & Sprague, K. (2016). Grow fast or die slow: Why unicorns are staying private. In McKinsey & Company Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/high-tech/our-insights/grow-fast-or-die-slow-why-unicorns-are-staying-private.Google Scholar
  51. Evans, D. S., & Leighton, L. S. (1989). Some empirical aspects of entrepreneurship. The American Economic Review, 79(3), 519–535.Google Scholar
  52. Evans, D. S., & Schmalensee, R. (2007). The industrial organization of markets with two-sided platforms. Competition Policy International, 3(1), 30.Google Scholar
  53. Evans, D. S., & Schmalensee, R. (2016). Matchmakers: The new economics of multisided platforms. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  54. Evans, P. C., & Basole, R. C. (2016). Revealing the API ecosystem and enterprise strategy via visual analytics. Communications of the ACM, 59(2), 26–28.  https://doi.org/10.1145/2856447.Google Scholar
  55. Evans, P. C. and Gawer, A. (2016) The rise of the platform enterprise: A global survey, the emerging platform economy series no. 1, the Center for Global Enterprise: http://thecge.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/PDF-WEB-Platform-Survey_01_12.pdf
  56. Fang, Z. (2002). E-government in digital era: Concept, practice, and development. International Journal of The Computer, The Internet, and Management, 10(2), 1–22.Google Scholar
  57. Feld, B. (2012). Startup communities: Building an entrepreneurial ecosystem in your city. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Feldman, M. P. (2001). The entrepreneurial event revisited: Firm formation in a regional context. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(4), 861–891.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/10.4.861.Google Scholar
  59. Florida, R. L. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class: and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life New York. NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  60. Garud, R., & Karnøe, P. (2003). Bricolage versus breakthrough: Distributed and embedded agency in technology entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 32(2), 277–300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00100-2.Google Scholar
  61. Gawer, A., & Cusumano, M. A. (2008). How companies become platform leaders. MIT Sloan Management Review; Cambridge, 49(2), 28–35.Google Scholar
  62. Ghazawneh, A., & Henfridsson, O. (2013). Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: The boundary resources model. Information Systems Journal, 23(2), 173–192.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2575.2012.00406.x.Google Scholar
  63. Giones, F., & Brem, A. (2017). Digital technology entrepreneurship: A definition and research agenda. Technology Innovation Management Review, 7(5) Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2984542.
  64. Glaeser, E. L., Kerr, W. R., & Ponzetto, G. A. M. (2010). Clusters of entrepreneurship. Journal of Urban Economics, 67(1), 150–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2009.09.008.Google Scholar
  65. Goodwin, T. (2015, March 3). The battle is for the customer interface. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from http://social.techcrunch.com/2015/03/03/in-the-age-of-disintermediation-the-battle-is-all-for-the-customer-interface/
  66. Haefliger, S., Jäger, P., & von Krogh, G. (2010). Under the radar: Industry entry by user entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 39(9), 1198–1213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2010.07.001.Google Scholar
  67. Hagiu, A., & Wright, J. (2018). The status of workers and platforms in the sharing economy. Working Paper, 17.Google Scholar
  68. Hess, C., & Ostrom, E. (2011). Understanding knowledge as a commons: from theory to practice (1st MIT press pbk. ed). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  69. Hoffman, R., & Yeh, C. (2018). Blitzscaling: The lightning-fast path to building multi-billion-dollar scaleups (First ed.). New York: Currency.Google Scholar
  70. Hurst, E., & Pugsley, B. W. (2011). What do small businesses do? (Brookings papers on economic activity) (pp. 73–118).Google Scholar
  71. Hwang, V. W., & Horowitt, G. (2012). The rainforest: The secret to building the next Silicon Valley. Los Altos Hills, Calif: Regenwald.Google Scholar
  72. Iansiti, M., & Levien, R. (2004, March 1). Strategy as ecology. Harvard Business Review, (March 2004). Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2004/03/strategy-as-ecology
  73. Isenberg, D. (2010). The big idea: How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard Business Review, June, 1 https://hbr.org/2010/06/the-big-idea-how-to-start-an-entrepreneurial-revolution.
  74. Jacobides, M. G., Cennamo, C., & Gawer, A. (2018). Towards a theory of ecosystems. Strategic Management Journal, 39(8), 2255–2276.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2904.Google Scholar
  75. Jovanovic, B., & Rousseau, P. L. (2005). General purpose technologies. In P. Aghion & S. N. Durlauf (Eds.), Handbook of Economic Growth (Vol. 1, pp. 1181–1224). Elsevier.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0684(05)01018-X.
  76. Kallinikos, J., Aaltonen, A., & Marton, A. (2013). The ambivalent ontology of digital artifacts. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 37(2), 357–370.Google Scholar
  77. Karakas, F. (2009). Welcome to world 2.0: The new digital ecosystem. Journal of Business Strategy, 30(4), 23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02756660910972622.Google Scholar
  78. Katz, M. L., & Shapiro, C. (1994). Systems competition and network effects. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(2), 93–115.  https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.8.2.93.Google Scholar
  79. Khan, L. M. (2017). Amazon’s antitrust paradox. Yale Law Journal, 126, 710–805.Google Scholar
  80. Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Kutcher, E., Nottebohm, O., & Sprague, K. (2016). Sustaining growth in technology companies. In McKinsey & Company Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/high-tech/our-insights/grow-fast-or-die-slow.Google Scholar
  82. Lafuente, E., Szerb, L., & Acs, Z. J. (2016). Country level efficiency and national systems of entrepreneurship: A data envelopment analysis approach. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 41(6), 1260–1283.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-015-9440-9.Google Scholar
  83. Li, W., Badr, Y., & Biennier, F. (2012). Digital ecosystems: Challenges and prospects. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems - MEDES ‘12 (p. 117). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ACM Press.  https://doi.org/10.1145/2457276.2457297.
  84. Liebowitz, S. J., & Margolis, S. E. (1994). Network externality: An uncommon tragedy. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(2), 133–150.  https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.8.2.133.Google Scholar
  85. Lüthje, C., Herstatt, C., & von Hippel, E. (2005). User-innovators and “local” information: The case of mountain biking. Research Policy, 34(6), 951–965.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2005.05.005.Google Scholar
  86. Lycett, M. (2013). ‘Datafication’: Making sense of (big) data in a complex world. European Journal of Information Systems, 22(4), 381–386.  https://doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2013.10.Google Scholar
  87. Mack, E., & Mayer, H. (2016). The evolutionary dynamics of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Urban Studies, 53(10), 2118–2133.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098015586547.Google Scholar
  88. MacMillan, D. (2014, January 3). Andreessen: Bubble Believers “Don’t Know What They’re Talking About.” Wall street journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/andreessen-bubble-believers-8216don8217t-know-what-they8217re-talking-about8217-1388771427
  89. Malecki, E. J. (2018). Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Geography Compass, 12(3), e12359.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12359.Google Scholar
  90. Malhotra, N. K., Kim, S. S., & Agarwal, J. (2004). Internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC): The construct, the scale, and a causal model. Information Systems Research, 15(4), 336–355.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1040.0032.Google Scholar
  91. Malone, T. W., Yates, J., & Benjamin, R. I. (1987). Electronic markets and electronic hierarchies. Communications of the ACM, 30(6), 484–497.  https://doi.org/10.1145/214762.214766.Google Scholar
  92. Markusen, A. (1996). Sticky places in slippery space: A typology of industrial districts. Economic Geography, 72(3), 293.  https://doi.org/10.2307/144402.Google Scholar
  93. Mars, M. M., Bronstein, J. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2012). The value of a metaphor. Organizational Dynamics, 41(4), 271–280.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2012.08.002.Google Scholar
  94. Mason, C., & Brown, D. R. (2014). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth oriented entrepreneurship. OECD LEED Programme and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs on Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth Oriented Entrepreneurship, The Hague, Netherlands., 38.Google Scholar
  95. Mason, R. O. (1986). Four ethical issues of the information age. MIS Quarterly, 10(1), 5–12.Google Scholar
  96. McAfee, A., & Brynjolfsson, E. (2017). Machine, platform, crowd: Harnessing our digital future (First ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  97. McCann, P., & Acs, Z. J. (2011). Globalization: Countries, cities and multinationals. Regional Studies, 45(1), 17–32.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2010.505915.Google Scholar
  98. McIntyre, D. P., & Srinivasan, A. (2017). Networks, platforms, and strategy: Emerging views and next steps. Strategic Management Journal, 38(1), 141–160.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2596.Google Scholar
  99. Moore, J. F. (1993). Predators and prey: A new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, (May–June 1993). Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1993/05/predators-and-prey-a-new-ecology-of-competition
  100. Nambisan, S. (2017). Digital entrepreneurship: Toward a digital technology perspective of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(6), 1029–1055.  https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12254.Google Scholar
  101. Nambisan, S., & Zahra, S. A. (2016). The role of demand-side narratives in opportunity formation and enactment. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 5, 70–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2016.05.001.Google Scholar
  102. Nambisan, S., Siegel, D., & Kenney, M. (2018). On open innovation, platforms, and entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(3), 354–368.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1300.Google Scholar
  103. Nanda, R., & Rhodes-Kropf, M. (2016). Financing entrepreneurial experimentation. Innovation Policy and the Economy, 16, 1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1086/684983.Google Scholar
  104. Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  105. Norberg, P. A., Horne, D. R., & Horne, D. A. (2007). The privacy paradox: Personal information disclosure intentions versus behaviors. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41(1), 100–126.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2006.00070.x.Google Scholar
  106. North, D. C. (1990). A transaction cost theory of politics. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 2(4), 355–367.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0951692890002004001.Google Scholar
  107. Oh, H., Rizo, C., Enkin, M., Jadad, A., Powell, J., & Pagliari, C. (2005). What is eHealth (3): A systematic review of published definitions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7(1).  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.7.1.e1.
  108. Owen-Smith, J., & Powell, W. W. (2004). Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: The effects of spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community. In Organization science, 15(1), 5–21. Retrieved from: JSTOR.Google Scholar
  109. Parker, G. G., Van Alstyne, M. W., & Choudary, S. P. (2016a). Pipelines, platforms, and the new rules of strategy. Harvard Business Review, 94(4), 16.Google Scholar
  110. Parker, G., Van Alstyne, M., & Choudary, S. P. (2016b). Platform revolution: How networked markets are transforming the economy and how to make them work for you (First ed.). New York: W. W. NORTON & COMPANY.Google Scholar
  111. Parker, S. C. (2009). The economics of entrepreneurship. In Cambridge, UK. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Pasquale, F. (2016). Two narratives of platform capitalism feature: Essays from the law and inequality conference. Yale Law & Policy Review, 35, 309–320.Google Scholar
  113. Porter, M. E. (1998). Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, (November-December 1998). Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1998/11/clusters-and-the-new-economics-of-competition
  114. Porter, M. E., & Heppelmann, J. E. (2015). How smart, connected products are transforming companies. Harvard Business Review, (October 2015). Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2015/10/how-smart-connected-products-are-transforming-companies
  115. Priem, R. L., Li, S., & Carr, J. C. (2012). Insights and new directions from demand-side approaches to technology innovation, entrepreneurship, and strategic management research. Journal of Management, 38(1), 346–374.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311429614.Google Scholar
  116. Qian, H., & Acs, Z. J. (2013). An absorptive capacity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 40(2), 185–197.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-011-9368-x.Google Scholar
  117. Ritter, J. R. (2014) “Initial public offerings: Updated statistics.”Google Scholar
  118. Ritzer, G., & Jurgenson, N. (2010). Production, consumption, prosumption: the nature of capitalism in the age of the digital ‘prosumer.’ Journal of Consumer Culture, 10(1), 13–36.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540509354673.
  119. Rochet, J.-C., & Tirole, J. (2003). Platform competition in two-sided markets. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1(4), 990–1029.Google Scholar
  120. Rogers, D. L. (2016). The digital transformation playbook: Rethink your business for the digital age. New York: Columbia Business School Pub.Google Scholar
  121. Rysman, M. (2009). The economics of two-sided markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(3), 125–143.  https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.23.3.125.Google Scholar
  122. Sassen, S. (1994). Cities in a world economy. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  123. Saxenian, A. (1996). Regional advantage: culture and competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 (8. Print). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University press.Google Scholar
  124. Schilling, M. A. (2002). Technology success and failure in winner-take-all markets: The impact of learning orientation, timing, and network externalities. The Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 387–398.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3069353.Google Scholar
  125. Schumpeter, J. (1911). The theory of economic development. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Shah, S. K., & Tripsas, M. (2007). The accidental entrepreneur: The emergent and collective process of user entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1–2), 123–140.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.15.Google Scholar
  127. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.2791611.Google Scholar
  128. Shapiro, C., & Varian, H. R. (1998). Information rules: A strategic guide to the network economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  129. Spigel, B. (2017). The relational organization of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(1), 49–72.  https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12167.Google Scholar
  130. Srinivasan, A., & Venkatraman, N. (2018). Entrepreneurship in digital platforms: A network-centric view: Entrepreneurship in digital platforms: A network-centric view. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(1), 54–71.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1272.Google Scholar
  131. Stam, E. (2015). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and regional policy: A sympathetic critique. European Planning Studies, 23(9), 1759–1769.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2015.1061484.Google Scholar
  132. Stam, E., & Spigel, B. (2018). Entrepreneurial ecosystems. In R. Blackburn, D. De Clercq, & J. Heinonen, The SAGE Handbook of Small Business and Entrepreneurship (pp. 407–421). 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP: SAGE Publications Ltd.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473984080.n21 .
  133. Stone, B. (2017). The upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the killer companies of the new Silicon Valley are changing the world (First ed.). New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  134. Sundararajan, A. (2016). The sharing economy: the end of employment and the rise of crowd-based capitalism. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  135. Sussan, F., & Acs, Z. J. (2017). The digital entrepreneurial ecosystem. Small Business Economics, 49(1), 55–73.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-017-9867-5.Google Scholar
  136. Tansley, A. G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology, 16(3), 284–307.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1930070.Google Scholar
  137. Tapscott, D., & Williams, A. D. (2010). Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything (expanded ed., paperback ed). New York, NY: Portfolio/Penguin.Google Scholar
  138. Taylor, P. J. (2004). World city network: A global urban analysis. In London. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  139. Teece, D. J. (2018). Profiting from innovation in the digital economy: Enabling technologies, standards, and licensing models in the wireless world. Research Policy, 47(8), 1367–1387.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.01.015.Google Scholar
  140. Terranova, T. (2000). Free labor: Producing culture for the digital economy. Social Text, 18(2), 33–58.Google Scholar
  141. Tiwana, A., Konsynski, B., & Bush, A. A. (2010). Research commentary—Platform evolution: Coevolution of platform architecture, governance, and environmental dynamics. Information Systems Research, 21(4), 675–687.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1100.0323.Google Scholar
  142. Valkokari, K. (2015). Business, innovation, and knowledge ecosystems: How they differ and how to survive and thrive within them. Technology Innovation Management Review; Ottawa, 5(8), 17–24.Google Scholar
  143. Van Alstyne, M. W., Parker, G. G., & Choudary, S. P. (2016). Pipelines, platforms, and the new rules of strategy. Harvard Business Review, (April 2016). Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/04/pipelines-platforms-and-the-new-rules-of-strategy
  144. Van Dijck, J. (2009). Users like you? Theorizing agency in user-generated content. Media, Culture & Society, 31(1), 41–58.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443708098245.Google Scholar
  145. von Briel, F., Davidsson, P., Recker, J. (2018). Digital technologies as external enablers of new venture creation in the IT hardware sector. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 42, 47–69.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258717732779.
  146. Weil, P., & Woerner, S.,. L. (2015). Thriving in an increasingly digital ecosystem. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(4), 27–34.Google Scholar
  147. West, J., & Lakhani, K. R. (2008). Getting clear about communities in open innovation. Industry and Innovation, 15(2), 223–231.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13662710802033734.Google Scholar
  148. West, J., & Mace, M. (2010). Browsing as the killer app: Explaining the rapid success of Apple’s iPhone. Telecommunications Policy, 34(5), 270–286.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2009.12.002.Google Scholar
  149. Yin, P.-L., Davis, J. P., & Muzyrya, Y. (2014). Entrepreneurial innovation: Killer apps in the iPhone ecosystem. American Economic Review, 104(5), 255–259.  https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.5.255.Google Scholar
  150. Yoo, Y., Henfridsson, O., & Lyytinen, K. (2010). Research commentary: The new organizing logic of digital innovation: An agenda for information systems research. Information Systems Research, 21(4), 724–735.Google Scholar
  151. Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185–203.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2002.6587995.Google Scholar
  152. Zahra, S. A., & Nambisan, S. (2012). Entrepreneurship and strategic thinking in business ecosystems. Business Horizons, 55(3), 219–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.12.004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Schar School of Policy and GovernmentGeorge Mason UniversityArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations