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Russian Linguistics

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 41–64 | Cite as

Everything old is new again: Another look into the history of Russian adjectives

  • Elena BratishenkoEmail author
Article

Abstract

The history of the adjective in Russian manifests the convergence of its declensional paradigm with the declension of non-personal pronouns. The present paper focuses on the sg. masc. ending -ogo, the syncretic Gen.-Acc. that replaces the corresponding ending -ago in Old East Slavic, the ending -ago being the result of prehistoric compounding of the short adjective and the anaphoric pronoun jego. While the development of the adjectival paradigm, separate from that originally shared with nouns, took the compounding route at some stage, it may have not been quite linear, at least in the Acc. case. It is hypothesized that the ending -ogo was not a new substitute for the old Gen. -ago, but rather a variant Acc. form used since antiquity to refer to persons. It may have already emerged in short adjectives, by direct analogy to kogo (Gen.-Acc. of the interrogative-indefinite kŭto ‘who’), independently of the compounding, in the same manner in which the Gen.-Acc. of non-personal pronouns arose. It is proposed that the compound form marked definiteness, and was associated with long active participles, with transitivity and subject-object distinction especially, while -ogo marked personhood in pronouns and in certain pronoun-like adjectives while they were still part of the nominal paradigm.

Все новое—хорошо забытое старое: История русских прилагательных в ином ракурсе

Аннотация

История имени прилагательного в русском языке указывает на сближение его склонения со склонением неличных местоимений. Настоящая статья сосредоточена на окончании м. р. ед. ч. -ого—синкретичного род.-вин. падежа, которое в ранневосточнославянский период стало заменять соответствующее ему окончание -аго; последнее представляет собой результат сложения краткого прилагательного с местоимением Open image in new window го. Хотя развитие парадигмы прилагательного отдельно от изначально общей парадигмы с существительным и прошло этап сложения, данный процесс не был прямолинейным по крайней мере в вин. падеже. Выдвинутая здесь гипотеза предполагает, что окончание -ого представляет собой не новообразование на месте прежнего окончания род. падежа -аго, а старинный вариант вин. падежа, употреблявшийся для обозначения людей. Это окончание, возможно, возникло независимо от процесса сложения уже в склонении краткой формы прилагательного по непосредственной аналогии с местоимением кого (род.-вин. падеж вопросительно-неопределенного къто), таким же путем, как и род.-вин. форма неличных местоимений. Членная форма обозначала определенность и, прежде всего, была связана с членными причастиями активного залога, с переходностью и различением субъекта и объекта, тогда как -ого служила для обозначения категории личности в местоимениях и в некоторых близких к местоимениям прилагательных, когда они еще принадлежали к общему с существительными склонению.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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