Advertisement

Research in Science Education

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 391–412 | Cite as

Bhutanese Students’ Views of Nature of Science: a Case Study of Culturally Rich Country

  • Pabi Maya Das
  • Chatree FaikhamtaEmail author
  • Vittaya Punsuvon
Article

Abstract

This study is aimed at exploring ninth-grade Bhutanese students’ views of nature of science (NOS). A total of 389 students from middle secondary and higher secondary schools from the eastern, western, southern and central regions of Bhutan took part in this study. To generate a representative population, a stratified random sampling technique was used. An adopted and adapted version of the Students Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry (SUSSI) comprised Likert-type items, and open-ended questions were used as a research tool. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analysed and categorized into naïve, transitional and informed views. The results indicated that the majority of the Bhutanese students held naïve views on sociocultural embeddedness, scientific laws, scientific theories and science as a body of knowledge. The study has an implication for curriculum developers and teaching professionals, particularly in culturally rich countries, that explicit instruction of NOS should be reframed based on students’ cultural backgrounds and their indigenous knowledge.

Keywords

Nature of science Bhutanese Explicit approach Cultural influence 

References

  1. Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2003). Socioscientific issues in pre-college science classrooms: the primacy of learners’ epistemological orientations and views of nature of science. In D. L. Zeidler (Ed.), The role of moral reasoning in socioscientific issues and discourse in science education (pp. 41–61). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Lederman, N. G. (2000). Improving science teachers’ conception of science: a critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education, 22(7), 665–701.Google Scholar
  3. Akerson, V. L., Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Lederman, N. G. (2000). Influence of a reflective explicit activity-based approach on elementary teachers’ conceptions of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(4), 295–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abd-El-Khalick, F., Bell, R. L., & Schwartz, R. Z. (2002). Views of nature of science questionnaire: toward valid and meaningful assessment of learners’ conception of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aflalo, E. (2013). Religious beliefs: the main impact on the perception of the nature of science on student teachers. Cultural Studies of Science Education., 8(3), 623–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy: a project 2061 report. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, R. L., Matkins, J. J., & Gansneder, B. M. (2011). Impacts of contextual and explicit instruction on preservice elementary teachers’ understandings of the nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(4), 414–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell, R. L., Blair, L. M., Crawford, B. A., & Lederman, N. G. (2003). Just do it? Impact of a science apprenticeship program on high school students’ understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(5), 487–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., Blickenstaff, J., & Walker, N. (2003). Learning, reasoning, motivation, and epistemological beliefs. Journal of College Science Teaching, 33, 18–23.Google Scholar
  10. Childs, A., Tenzin, W., Johnson, D., & Ramachandran, K. (2012). Science education in Bhutan: issues and challenges. International Journal of Science Education, 34(3), 375–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clough, M. P. (2011). The story behind the science: bringing science and scientists to life in post-secondary science education. Science & Education, 20(7), 701–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cobern, W. W., & Loving, C. C. (2001). Defining “science” in multicultural world: implication for science education. Science Education, 85, 50–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Department of Curriculum Research and Development. (2011). Science curriculum framework classes PP-XII. Bhutan: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  14. Dongan, N., & Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2008). Turkish grade 10 students’ and teachers’ conception on nature of science: a national study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(10), 1083–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duschl, R. A. (1990). Reconstructing science education: the importance of theories and their development. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hand, B., Prain, V., Lawrence, C., & Yore, L. D. (1999). Writing in science framework designed to enhance scientific literacy. International Journal of Science Education, 21(10), 1021–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hanuscin, D. L., Akerson, V. L., & Phillipson-Mower, T. (2006). Integrating nature of science instruction into a physical science content course for preservice elementary teachers: NOS views of teaching assistants. Science Education, 90(5), 912–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jonson, D., Childs, A., Ramachandran, K., &Tenzin, W. (2007). A needs assessment of science education in Bhutan, UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/geography/en/files/11198/12396892105Final_Report.pdf/Final%2BReport.pdf. retrieved 5 January 2013.
  19. Kang, S., Scharmann, L. C., & Noh, T. (2005). Examining students’ views of nature of science: result from Korean 6th, 8th, and 10th graders. Science Education, 89(2), 324–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelly, G. J., Carlsen, W. S., & Cunningham, C. M. (1993). Science education in sociocultural context: perspectives from the sociology of science. Science Education, 77(2), 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khishfe, R. (2008). The development of seventh graders’ views of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(4), 470–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khishfe, R., & Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2002). Influence of explicit and reflective versus implicit inquiry-oriented instruction on sixth graders’ views of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(7), 551–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lederman, N. G. (1992). Students’ and teachers’ conception of the nature of science: a review of the research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(4), 331–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lederman, N. G., Abd-El-Khalick, F., Bell, R. L., & Schwartz, R. S. (2002). Views of nature of science questionnaire: toward valid and meaningful assessment of learners’ conceptions of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lederman, N. G. (2007). Nature of science: past, present, and future. In S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Liang, L. L., Chen, S., Chen, X., Kaya, O. N., Adams, A. D., Macklin, M., & Ebenezer, J. (2008). Assessing preservice elementary teachers’ views on the nature of scientific knowledge: a dual-response instrument. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9, 1–20.Google Scholar
  27. Liang, L. L., Chen, X., Kaya, O. N., Adams, A. D., Macklin, M., & Ebenezer, J. (2009). Preservice teachers’ views about nature of scientific knowledge development: an international collaborative study. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(5), 987–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mackay, L. D. (1971). Development of understanding about the nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 8(1), 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McComas, W. F. (2004). Keys to teaching the nature of science. The Science Teacher, 71(9), 24–27.Google Scholar
  30. McComas, W. F., Clough, M., & Almazroa, H. (1998). The role and character of the nature of science in science education (pp 3–40). In W. F. McComas (Ed.), The nature of science in science education. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. McComas, W. F., & Olson, J. K. (1998). The nature of science in international science education standards documents. In W. F. McComas (Ed.), The nature of science in science education: rationales and strategies (pp. 41–52). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Meichtry, Y. J. (1993). The impact of science curricula on students’ views about nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30(5), 429–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. NGSS. (2013). Next generation science standards: for states, by states. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  34. Meyer, X., & Crawford, A. B. (2011). Teaching science as a cultural way of knowing: merging authentic inquiry, nature of science, and multicultural strategies. Cultural Studies in Science Education. doi: 10.1007/s11422-011-9318-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Park, H., Nielsen, W., & Woodruff, E. (2014). Students’ conceptions of the nature of science: perspective from Canadian and Korean middle secondary school students. Science & Education, 23(5), 1169–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Policy and Planning Division. (2013). Annual education statistics. Ministry of Education. Thimphu. from http://www.education.gov.bt/. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  37. Rubba, P. A., & Anderson, H. (1978). Development of an instrument to assess secondary school students’ understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Science Education, 62(4), 449–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryan, A. G., & Aikenhead, G. S. (1992). Students’ preconceptions about the epistemology of science. Science Education, 76(6), 559–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, R. S., Lederman, N. G., & Crawford, B. (2004). Developing views of nature of science in an authentic context: an explicit approach to bridging the gap between nature of science and scientific inquiry. Science Education, 88(4), 610–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introduction Analysis. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Darla Middle Secondary SchoolChukhaBhutan
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Faculty of Science|Kasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations