Catalytic hydrolysis of microcystin-LR peptides on the surface of naturally occurring minerals

  • Yanfen Fang
  • Xinqiang Cao
  • Wei Zhou
  • Yue Li
  • David M. Johnson
  • Yingping HuangEmail author


There are increasing concerns about detoxification of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the removal of MC-LR in water by hydrolysis has not been addressed yet. The hydrolysis efficiencies of MC-LR by six natural minerals were investigated in the present study. Limonite displayed the highest activity among the screened six minerals, which is in accordance with the highest specific surface area (17.8 m2/g) and surface acidity. The hydrolysis of MC-LR was catalyzed by Lewis acid sites on limonite surface. The effects of temperature, pH reaction time and illumination on MC-LR hydrolysis catalyzed by limonite were then investigated. As expected, the high temperature, the addition of either acid or base and long reaction time could enhance the reaction rate, but UV light irradiation had little influence. These results give the indication that naturally occurring minerals can promote the hydrolysis of MC-LR, which gives a more universal view about the natural degradation of microcystins and could lead to more accurate predictions of the duration of microcystin toxicity in environment.


Mineral MC-LR Peptide Hydrolysis Lewis acid catalysis 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21577078, 21677086 and 21407092), the Natural Science Foundation for Innovation Group of Hubei Province, China (2015CFA021) and Three Gorges University Master's Thesis Training Fund (2019SSPY154).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanfen Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xinqiang Cao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yue Li
    • 3
  • David M. Johnson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yingping Huang
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Biological and Pharmaceutical SciencesChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangChina
  2. 2.Engineering Research Center of Eco-environment in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of EducationChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangChina
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryNankai UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

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