Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 1263–1279 | Cite as

Synthesis of Zr-based MOF nanocomposites for efficient visible-light photocatalytic degradation of contaminants

  • Sheng FengEmail author
  • Runbai Wang
  • Shanshan Feng
  • Zhihui Zhang
  • Lebao Mao


A novel ternary complex photocatalyst (UiO-66/g-C3N4/Ag) was fabricated by chemical protonation coating and photodeposition and its physicochemical parameters, crystal morphology, and electrochemical properties characterized using a series of techniques. Proper addition of g-C3N4 and Ag effectively enhanced the separation and mobility of photoinduced charge and improved the visible-light absorption and thereby the catalytic performance. Degradation experiments on target contaminants such as Rhodamine B (RhB) dye and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) showed that the photocatalytic ability of UiO-66/g-C3N4/Ag(15) was greatly increased compared with the parent material. Moreover, the composite could be regenerated by a simple ethanol washing process and exhibited stability and high reusability over six cycles. Finally, experiments on trapping of active species revealed that superoxide radicals (·O 2 ), holes (h+), and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) were primarily responsible for the photodegradation of RhB and 2,4-d.


UiO-66/g-C3N4/Ag Photocatalysis RhB 2,4-d Catalytic mechanism 



The authors sincerely acknowledge financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 41371446 and 41271498), National Social Science Foundation of China (No. 16BJL074), and SKLECRA2014OFP10.


  1. 1.
    X. Zou, Y. Dong, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, X. Ou, X. Qi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 391, 525 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Sohail, H. Xue, Q. Jiao, H. Li, K. Khan, S. Wang, Y. Zhao, Mater. Res. Bull. 90, 125 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    U. Ca-Flores, J. La-Romero, J. Zá-Medina, M.J. Mu-Batista, R. Hu-Acuña, E.M. Ri-Muñoz, J.A. Cortés, Catal. Today 266, 102 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Zalfani, Z.Y. Hu, W.B. Yu, M. Mahdouani, R. Bourguiga, M. Wu, Y. Li, G.V. Tendeloo, Y. Djaoued, B.L. Su, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 205, 121 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Q. Zhang, J. Chen, Y. Xie, M. Wang, X. Ge, Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 332 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Huang, N. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Wu, L. Tang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 425, 107 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.M. Hu, V.A. Blatov, B. Yu, H.K. Van, G.H. Cui, Dalton Trans. 45(6), 2426 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.Y. Hao, S.X. Hou, H.K. Van, G.H. Cui, Dalton Trans. 46(6), 1951 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.W. Cui, S.X. Hou, H.K. Van, G.H. Cui, Dalton Trans. 46(9), 2892 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Xu, R. Liu, Y. Cui, X. Liang, C. Lei, S. Meng, Y. Ma, Z. Lei, Z. Yang, Appl. Catal. B 210, 484 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.-C. Wang, C.-X. Cui, Y. Li, L. Liu, Y.-P. Zhang, W. Shi, J. Hazard. Mater. 339, 43 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Jiang, X. Yuan, Y. Pan, J. Liang, G. Zeng, Z. Wu, H. Wang, Appl. Catal. B 217, 388 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Shi, T. Wang, H. Zhang, K. Chang, J. Ye, Redu. Adv. Funct Mater. 25(33), 5360 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Liang, L. Shen, F. Jing, N. Qin, L. Wu, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 7(18), 9507 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Huang, X. Zhang, H. Song, C. Chen, F. Han, C. Wen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 441, 85 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Zhang, M. Zhang, L. Lin, X. Wang, Angew. Chem. 54(21), 6297 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.J. Ong, L.L. Tan, S.P. Chai, S.T. Yong, A.R. Mohamed, Nano. Energy. 13, 757 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z. Liu, Y. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhu, Green Chem. 18(3), 817 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Deng, Y. Xin, H. Liu, D. Ma, N. Bao, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 221, 1 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W.D. Oh, L.W. Lok, A. Veksha, A. Giannis, T.T. Lim, Chem. Eng. J. 333, 739 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Qin, J. Huo, P. Zhang, J. Zeng, T. Wang, H. Zeng, Nanoscale 8(4), 2249 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Chen, D. Chen, S. Xie, H. Quan, X. Luo, L. Guo, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(46), 41043 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Zhang, J. Li, X. Wang, Y. Huang, M. Zeng, J. Xu, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22116 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. Sha, H.S. Chan, J. Wu, J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 132 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    X. Bai, R. Zong, C. Li, D. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhu, Appl. Catal. B 147(7), 82 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Wang, M. Zhao, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Wang, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(10), 679 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Zhu, P. Xiao, H. Li, S.A. Carabineiro, Cheminformatics 45(51), 16449 (2015)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Xu, Q. Jiang, T. Chen, F. Wu, Y.X. Li, Catal. Sci. Technol. 5(3), 1504 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.M. Ebrahim, T.J. Bandosz, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 5(21), 10565 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. Valenzano, B. Civalleri, S. Chavan, S. Bordiga, M.H. Nilsen, S. Jakobsen, K.P. Lillerud, C. Lamberti, Chem. Mater. 23(7), 1700 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Z. Yang, X. Xu, X. Liang, C. Lei, Y. Cui, W. Wu, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, Z. Lei, Appl. Catal. 205, 42 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Qiu, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, M. Jia, J. Yao, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 499, 151 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Q. Liang, J. Jin, C. Liu, S. Xu, C. Yao, Z. Li, Inorg. Chem. Front. 5, 2 (2017)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    X. Zhang, Y. Yang, W. Huang, Y. Yang, Y. Wang, C. He, N. Liu, M. Wu, L. Tang, Mater. Res. Bull. 99, 349 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y. Su, Z. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Appl. Catal. B 200, 448 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Wen, J. Xie, H. Zhang, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, L. Xin, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(16), 45 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    B.W. Sun, H.J. Li, H.Y. Yu, D.J. Qian, M. Chen, Carbon 117, 1 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Potlog, D. Duca, M. Dobromir, Appl. Surf. Sci. 352, 33 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Zhu, P. Xiao, S.A.C. Carabineiro Hailong, ACS Appl. Mater. 6, 16449 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Q. Liang, G. Jiang, Z. Zhao, Z. Li, M.J. Maclachlan, Catal. Sci. Tech. 5(6), 3368 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Wang, C. Li, Y. Liang, T. Han, H. Huang, Q. Yang, D. Liu, C. Zhong, Chem. Eng. J. 289, 486 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. Gao, J. Lin, Q. Zhang, H. Yu, F. Ding, B. Xu, Y. Sun, Z. Xu, Appl. Catal., B. 224, 112 (2017)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Sarker, I. Ahmed, S.H. Jhung, Chem. Eng. J. 323, 267 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.J. Zhou, R. Wang, X.L. Liu, F.M. Peng, C.H. Li, F. Teng, Y.P. Yuan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 346(4), 278 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Y. Hou, F. Zuo, A.P. Dagg, J. Liu, P. Feng, Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5043 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Rtimi, D.D. Dionysiou, S.C. Pillai, J. Kiwi, Appl. Catal., B. 68, 490 (2018)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. Masih, Y. Ma, S, Appl. Catal., B. 206, 556 (2017)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. Akhundi, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, Adv. Powder Technol. 70(4), 553 (2016)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Habibi-Yangjeh, A. Akhundi, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 415(8), 122 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    L. Su, X. Ye, S. Meng, X. Fu, S. Chen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 384, 161 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. Bi, Z. Zhou, M. Chen, S. Liang, Y. He, Z. Zhang, L. Wu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 292 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    L. Luo, A. Zhang, M.J. Janik, K. Li, C. Song, X. Guo, Appl. Surf. Sci. 396, 78 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Y. Chen, W. Huang, D. He, Y. Situ, H. Huang, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 6(16), 14405 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    H. Choi, S.J. Ko, Y. Choi, P. Joo, T. Kim, R.L. Bo, J.W. Jung, H.J. Choi, M. Cha, J.R. Jeong, Nat. Photon. 7(9), 732 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    X. Xu, R. Liu, Y. Cui, X. Liang, C. Lei, S. Meng, Y. Ma, Z. Lei, Z. Yang, App. Catal. B: Environ. 210, 484 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheng Feng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Runbai Wang
    • 1
  • Shanshan Feng
    • 1
  • Zhihui Zhang
    • 2
  • Lebao Mao
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Environmental and Safety EngineeringChangzhou UniversityJiangsuChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and TechnologyChangzhou UniversityJiangsuChina
  3. 3.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHubei UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations