Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 355–378 | Cite as

Application of resin and NH4NO3 as an ion exchange agent for microspherical preparation of nanostructured kaolin-SAPO-34 catalyst for methanol to light olefins reaction in a fluidized bed reactor

  • Sogand Aghamohammadi
  • Mohammad HaghighiEmail author


The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of various ion exchange methods in the assembly of nanostructured kaolin-SAPO-34 catalyst using silica sol as binder by spray drying for conversion of methanol to light olefins in a fluidized bed reactor. Physiochemical properties of the catalysts were identified by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET, NH3-TPD and FTIR techniques. The results of XRD analysis exhibit typical SAPO-34 and kaolinite phase for all the three spray dried samples. It represents the successful spray drying that the crystallite structure of the shaped samples assumes by the spray dryer that is composed of both kaolinite and SAPO-34 phase. With the comparison of FESEM results of the samples, it can be implied that use of resin as an ion-exchange agent resulted in smoother and larger particles. According to NH3-TPD results at high calcination temperatures, the reaction of silica from the binder with the extra-framework alumina of kaolin or SAPO-34 results in new acid sites. The catalysts mechanical strength was evaluated by the fluidized bed attrition test. MTO Performance tests were carried out to study the activity of the catalysts in a fixed bed reactor. The optimized catalyst was also tested in a fluidized bed reactor. The optimal shaped sample showed excellent activity of near 22 h during MTO reaction in a fluidized bed reactor.


SAPO-34 Kaolin Ion exchange method Spray dryer Fluidized bed reactor MTO 



This work would not have been possible without the financial support of Sahand University of Technology (Grant No. 0271002) as well as Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (Grant No. 47623) for complementary financial support.


  1. 1.
    Y. Zhang, Z. Chao, H.A. Jakobsen, Chem. Eng. J. 320, 271 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.O. Obada, D. Dodoo-Arhin, M. Dauda, F.O. Anafi, A.S. Ahmed, O.A. Ajayi, Res. Phys. 7, 2718 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Khaledi, M. Haghighi, P. Sadeghpour, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 246, 51 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Alizadeh Eslami, M. Haghighi, P. Sadeghpour, Powder Technol. 310, 187 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Mohammadkhani, M. Haghighi, P. Sadeghpour, RSC Adv. 6, 30 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Aghaei, M. Haghighi, Z. Pazhohniya, S. Aghamohammadi, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 226, 331 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Askari, A. Bashardoust Siahmard, R. Halladj, S. Miar Alipour, Powder Technol. 301, 268 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Abdollahifar, M. Haghighi, A.A. Babaluo, S. Khajeh Talkhoncheh, Ultrason. Sonochem. 31, 173 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Storck, H. Bretinger, W.F. Maier, Appl. Catal. A 174, 1 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Mirza, M. Ghadiri, M. Haghighi, A. Afghan, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 260, 155 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.J. Park, H.-G. Jang, K.-Y. Lee, S.J. Cho, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 256(Supplement C), 155 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Bahrami, J.T. Darian, M. Sedighi, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 261(Supplement C), 119 (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Tian, Y. Wei, M. Ye, Z. Liu, ACS Catal. 5, 3 (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Aghaei, M. Haghighi, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 196, 305 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Mitchell, N.-L. Michels, J. Perez-Ramirez, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 14 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Khan, M.G. Rigamonti, G.S. Patience, D.C. Boffito, Appl. Catal. B 226, 311 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G.D. Park, J. Lee, Y. Piao, Y.C. Kang, Chem. Eng. J. 335, 548 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.S. Piskun, J. Ftouni, Z. Tang, B.M. Weckhuysen, P.C.A. Bruijnincx, H.J. Heeres, Appl. Catal. A 549, 197 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N.-L. Michels, S. Mitchell, J. Pérez-Ramírez, ACS Catal. 4, 8 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.B.D. Nandiyanto, K. Okuyama, Adv. Powder Technol. 22, 1 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Kim, H.-J. Chae, T.-W. Kim, K.-E. Jeong, C.-U. Kim, S.-Y. Jeong, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17, 3 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    X. Du, X. Kong, L. Chen, Catal. Commun. 45, 91 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    X. Guo, Y. Lu, P. Wu, K. Zhang, Q. Liu, M. Luo, Chin. J. Chem. Eng. 24, 7 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Qin, W. Pan, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 508, 1 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Kim, S. Hwang, S. Hyun, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47, 18 (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.P. Reymond, G. Dessalces, F. Kolenda, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. 118, 845 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    B.T. Holland, V. Subramani, S.K. Gangwal, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46, 13 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Zhao, J.G. Goodwin, R. Oukaci, Appl. Catal. A 189, 1 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Belver, M.A. Bañares Muñoz, M.A. Vicente, Chem. Mater. 14, 5 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Leofanti, M. Padovan, G. Tozzola, B. Venturelli, Catal. Today 41, 1 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Rahmani, M. Haghighi, Korean J. Chem. Eng. 33, 9 (2016)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Aghaei, M. Haghighi, J. Porous Mater. 22, 1 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    E. Aghaei, M. Haghighi, Powder Technol. 269, 358 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Ajamein, M. Haghighi, Energy Convers. Manag. 118, 231 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Charghand, M. Haghighi, S. Saedy, S. Aghamohammadi, Adv. Powder Technol. 25, 6 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Sharifi, M. Haghighi, F. Rahmani, S. Karimipour, J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 21, 993 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Niwa, N. Katada, Chem. Rec. 13, 5 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Aghamohammadi, M. Haghighi, Adv. Powder Technol. 27, 4 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Kim, M. Choi, R. Ryoo, J. Catal. 269, 1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Y.-J. Lee, S.-C. Baek, K.-W. Jun, Appl. Catal. A 329, 130 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.L. Obrzut, P.M. Adekkanattu, J. Thundimadathil, J. Liu, D.R. Dubois, J.A. Guin, React. Kinet. Mech. Cat. 80, 1 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering FacultySahand University of TechnologySahand New Town, TabrizIran
  2. 2.Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC)Sahand University of TechnologySahand New Town, TabrizIran

Personalised recommendations