Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 127–154 | Cite as

Microwave-assisted and thermal synthesis of nanosized thiazolyl-phenothiazine derivatives and their biological activities

  • Manal M. Alsharekh
  • Ismail I. Althagafi
  • Mohamed R. Shaaban
  • Thoraya A. FarghalyEmail author


Efficient synthesis of a series of nanosized phenothiazine derivatives incorporating thiazole moiety was achieved using microwave irradiation as well as thermal conditions. Reaction of 2-(1-(10H-phenothiazin-2-yl)ethylidene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide with various types of hydrazonoyl halide or α-haloketone afforded corresponding thiazolyl phenothiazines in good to excellent yield. Mass, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and elemental analyses confirmed the structure of all the new derivatives. The reaction progressed under microwave irradiation in shorter reaction time with higher yield compared with the conventional method. The antimicrobial and antitumor activities of selected derivatives were investigated, revealing that some of them showed high potency compared with standard references.


Phenothiazines Thiosemicarbazone Thioamides Hydrazonoyl halides α-Haloketones Thiazoles Antimicrobial Anticancer Microwaves 



This work was supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (grant no. 37-1683 for postgraduate students).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manal M. Alsharekh
    • 1
  • Ismail I. Althagafi
    • 1
  • Mohamed R. Shaaban
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thoraya A. Farghaly
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied ScienceUmm Al-Qura UniversityMakkah AlmukkarramahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

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