Metal ion adsorption from wastewater by g-C3N4 modified with hydroxyapatite: a case study from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage

  • Ramtin Agha Beygli
  • Neda Mohaghegh
  • Esmaeil RahimiEmail author


Hydroxyapatite (Hap) modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) powders (Hap/g-C3N4) were prepared and characterized. The sorption activities of g-C3N4 and Hap/g-C3N4 were evaluated for the removal of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Fe3+ and Cd2+ metal ions from simulated wastewater (synthetic solutions containing metal ions) and acid mine drainage from the sSarcheshmeh Copper Mine. The results indicated that the sorption capacities (SC) of g-C3N4 remarkably increased after the modification by Hap. Hap/g-C3N4 possessed higher SC than unmodified g-C3N4. So, the sorption mechanisms appear mainly attributable to the chemical interactions between the metal ions and functional groups on the Hap/g-C3N4 surface. More adsorption sites were formed on Hap/g-C3N4, which possessed abundant surface hydroxyl, phosphate and –NH2/–NH–/=N groups causing the higher efficiency of metal ion uptakes. Divalent metal cations are first adsorbed on the Hap/g-C3N4 surface and then substitution with Ca2+ ion can occur. Effect of pH evaluations confirmed that SC increased steeply with the pH increasing on both g-C3N4 and Hap/g-C3N4 adsorbents. The kinetic study demonstrated that the adsorption data were correlated well with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption process successfully followed the pseudo-second-order model.


Graphitic carbon nitride Hydroxyapatite Adsorption kinetics Acid Mine Drainage Sarcheshmeh copper mine 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramtin Agha Beygli
    • 1
  • Neda Mohaghegh
    • 2
  • Esmaeil Rahimi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mining EngineeringIslamic Azad University- South Tehran BranchTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum, Mining and Material EngineeringIslamic Azad University, Central Tehran BranchTehranIran

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