Roma Undergraduates’ Personal Network in the Process of College Transition. A Social Capital Approach
Roma university students’ personal networks become unstable in the process of college transition. We describe the personal networks of these students using the model set up by Brandes et al. (in: Proceedings of the IEEE pacific visualization symposium (Pacific Vis’08), IEEE Computer Society Press, 2008) and analyse the identified groups utilizing the social capital approach. We mapped seventy-six students’ networks applying contact diary. Origin, host and fellow groups significantly differ in their composition; they provide different (‘bonding’ or ‘bridging’) type of resources, and their availability to the Roma students is also different. We found significant differences between the students in their tendency to rely on certain groups in the process of academic adjustment.
KeywordsSocial capital Contact diary College transition Roma Integration Underrepresented minorities
We would like to thank co-workers and students of the CRCN for participating in this study. We would also like to thank Éva Huszti and Tünde Szabó for their help in collecting network data.
- Antrop-González, R., Vélez, W., & Garrett, T. (2003). Where are the academically successful puerto rican students? Five success factors of high achieving puerto rican high school students. JSRI Working Paper #61, Michigan: The Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University, East Lansing. Retrieved October 31, 2014, from http://www.files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502158.pdf.
- Arnold, P., Ágyas, R., Héra, G., Katona, I., Kiss, J., & Mészáros, Z. (2011). Evaluation research of Romaversitas Hungary: Final study. Budapest: Kurt Lewin Foundation.Google Scholar
- Astin, A. W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297–308.Google Scholar
- Babusik, F. (2004). Legitimacy, statistics and research methodology—who is Romani in Hungary today and what are we (not) allowed to know about Roma. In D. Petrova (Ed.), Ethnic statistics (pp. 14–18). Budapest: European Roma Rights Center.Google Scholar
- Barany, Z. (2002). The East European Gypsies: Regime change, marginality, and ethnopolitics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Biancani, S., & McFarland, D. A. (2013). Social networks research in higher education. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 151–216). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research of for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
- Brandes, U., Lerner, J., Lubbers, M. J., McCarthy, C., & Molina, J. L. (2008). Visual statistics for collections of clustered graphs. In Proceedings of the IEEE pacific visualization symposium (Pacific Vis’08) (pp. 47–54). IEEE Computer Society Press. https://doi.org/10.1109/pacificvis.2008.4475458.
- Braxton, J. M., Sullivan, A. V., & Johnson, R. M. (1997). Appraising Tinto’s theory of college student departure. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 107–164). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
- Carter, D. F., Locks, A. M., & Winkle-Wagner, R. (2013). From when and where i enter: theoretical and empirical considerations of minority students’ transition to college. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 93–149). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Deed of Foundation of the Christian Roma College Network (CRCN). (2011). [Keresztény Roma Szakkollégiumi Hálózat (KRSZH) Alapító okirata, 17 March 2011, Budapest.]. Retrieved August 27, 2014, from http://krszh.hu/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/R-KERESZT%C3%89NY-ROMA-SZAKKOLL%C3%89GIUMI-H%C3%81L%C3%93ZAT.doc.
- Dunajeva, J. (2015). Preface to the english special issue of Romology Journal. Romológia, 2015(10), 1–2.Google Scholar
- Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.Google Scholar
- Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO). Population Census 2011. Data on National, Ethnic Affiliation. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/nemzetisegi_adatok.
- Hurtado, S., Han, J. C., Sáenz, V. B., Espinosa, L., Cabrera, N., & Cerna, O. (2007). Predicting transition and adjustment to college: Biomedical and behavioural science aspirants’ and minority students’ first year of college. Research in Higher Education, 48(7), 841–887. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-007-9051-x.Google Scholar
- Johnson, D. R., Soldner, M., Brown Leonard, J., Alvarez, P., Kurotsuchi Inkelas, K., Rowan-Kenyon, H., et al. (2007). Examining sense of belonging among first year undergraduates from different racial/ethnic groups. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 525–542.Google Scholar
- Kemény, I. (2005). History of Roma in Hungary. In I. Kemény (Ed.), Roma of Hungary (pp. 1–69). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Kemény, I., & Janky, B. (2005). Roma population of Hungary 1971–2003. In I. Kemény (Ed.), Roma of Hungary (pp. 70–225). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Kende, A. (2007). Success stories? Roma University students overcoming social exclusion in Hungary. In H. Colley, B. Hoskins, T. Parveva, & P. Boetzelen (Eds.), Social inclusion for young people. Breaking down the barriers (pp. 133–144). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
- Ladányi, J., & Szelényi, I. (2006). Patterns of exclusion: Constructing Gypsy ethnicity and the making of an underclass. Boulder: East European Monographs.Google Scholar
- Lin, N. (2008). A network theory of social capital. In D. Castiglione, J. W. van Deth, & G. Wolleb (Eds.), The handbook of social capital (pp. 50–69). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lukács, Á., & Dávid, B. (2015). Gypsy University Students’ Network Composition from the Social Capital Approach. In Paper presented at the annual meeting for Sunbelt XXXV. International Sunbelt Social Network Conference, International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA), Brighton, UK, 23–28 June 2015.Google Scholar
- Messing, V. (2008). Good practices addressing school integration of Roma/Gypsy children in Hungary. Intercultural Education, 19(5), 461–473.Google Scholar
- Newcomb, T. M. (1962). Student peer-group influence. In N. Sanford (Ed.), The American college: A psychological and social interpretation of the higher learning (pp. 469–488). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Nunez, A. M. (2009). Latino students’ transitions to college: A social and intercultural capital perspective. Harvard Educational Review, 79(1), 22–48. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.79.1.wh7164658k33w477.Google Scholar
- Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work. Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Ream, R. K., & Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2007). The mobility/social capital dynamic: Understanding Latino families and students. In S. J. Paik & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Minority children and youth: Families, schools, communities, and learning (pp. 67–89). Illinois: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
- Rendon, L., Jalomo, R., & Nora, A. (2000). Theoretical considerations in the study of minority student retention in higher education. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 127–156). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
- Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2001). Manufacturing hope and despair: The school and kin support networks of U.S.-Mexican youth. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Stanton-Salazar, R. (2004). Social capital among working-class minority students. In M. Gibson, P. Gandara, & J. Peterson Koyama (Eds.), School connections: U.S. Mexican Youth, Peers, and School Achievement (pp. 18–38). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Strayhorn, T. L. (2012). College students’ sense of belonging: A key to educational success for all students. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Szabóné Kármán, J. (2012). A magyarországi roma/cigány értelmiség histográfiája, helyzete, mentális állapota. [History, Status and Mental Health of the Hungarian Roma/Gypsy Intellectual]. Budapest: Gondolat Kiadó.Google Scholar
- Tierney, W. G. (2000). Power, identity and the dilemma of college student departure. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 213–256). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
- Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cues of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Tinto, V. (1998). Colleges as communities: Taking research on student persistence seriously. The Review of Higher Education, 21(2), 167–177.Google Scholar
- Tóth, K. D. (2005). Comparative study on the identity types of ‘Successful’ gypsies/travellers in Hungary and in England. European Integration Studies, 4(2), 121–130.Google Scholar
- Van Gennep, A. (1960). The rites of passage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Weidman, J. C. (2006). Socialization of students in higher education: Organizational perspectives. In C. Conrad & R. C. Serlin (Eds.), The sage handbook for research in education: Engaging ideas and enriching inquiry (pp. 253–262). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar