Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 917–934 | Cite as

Spatial distribution of discards in mixed fisheries: species trade-offs, potential spatial avoidance and national contrasts

  • Marianne RobertEmail author
  • Julia Calderwood
  • Zachary Radford
  • Tom Catchpole
  • David G. Reid
  • Lionel Pawlowski
Original Research

Abstract

Since 2015, the European Union gradually implemented the landing obligation (LO). This prohibits at-sea discarding of species under total allowable catch management. Spatiotemporal avoidance strategies and increasing fishing gear selectivity are two complementary levers that could help fishers in reducing the amount of discards. The objective of this paper is to analyse discarding practices of demersal mixed fisheries in the central part of the Celtic Sea to inform on potential spatial avoidance strategies of unwanted catches in a multi-species context. This study provides the first international and fine scale discard maps based on combined observer at-sea data from Ireland, France and the UK, the main countries fishing in the area. Using a suite of multivariate analyses, we identified areas with similar discard profiles, accounting for the multi-species nature of the fisheries. The maps were also derived separately for the three countries to examine national versus general patterns. Strong spatial segregation in effort between the countries, combined with nationally distinct quotas constraints, fisheries targets and market preferences, resulted in limited differences in the species composition of discards, but considerable differences in spatial discard patterns between countries. In theory, the maps based on discards below and above the minimum conservation reference size could inform fishers on areas to avoid but in practice, the spatial ubiquity of some species involved and strong technical interactions between fishing gears limit the possibility of avoiding discards. Some species trade-offs could be identified that might help to minimize adverse impacts of the implementation of the LO.

Keywords

Fisheries management Landing obligation Discards Mixed fisheries Celtic Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement DiscardLess No. 633680.

Supplementary material

11160_2019_9581_MOESM1_ESM.docx (803 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 802 kb)

References

  1. Batsleer J, Hamon KG, van Overzee HMJ et al (2015) High-grading and over-quota discarding in mixed fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fish 25:715–736.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-015-9403-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borges L, Rogan E, Officer R (2005) Discarding by the demersal fishery in the waters around Ireland. Fish Res 76:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2005.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calderwood J, Robert M, Pawlowski L et al (2019) Hotspot mapping in the Celtic Sea: an interactive tool using multinational data to optimise fishing practices. Mar Policy.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103511 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catchpole TL, Frid CLJ, Gray TS (2005) Discards in North Sea fisheries: causes, consequences and solutions. Mar Pol 29:421–430.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2004.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Catchpole TL, Feekings JP, Madsen N et al (2014) Using inferred drivers of discarding behaviour to evaluate discard mitigation measures. ICES J Mar Sci 71:1277–1285.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catchpole TL, Ribeiro-Santos A, Mangi SC et al (2017) The challenges of the landing obligation in EU fisheries. Mar Pol 82:76–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deporte N, Ulrich C, Mahévas S et al (2012) Regional métier definition: a comparative investigation of statistical methods using a workflow applied to international otter trawl fisheries in the North Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 69:331–342.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dolder PJ, Thorson JT, Minto C (2018) Spatial separation of catches in highly mixed fisheries. Sci Rep 8:13886.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31881-w CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Eayrs S, Pol M (2018) The myth of voluntary uptake of proven fishing gear: investigations into the challenges inspiring change in fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eliasen SQ, Papadopoulou K-N, Vassilopoulou V, Catchpole TL (2014) Socio-economic and institutional incentives influencing fishers’ behaviour in relation to fishing practices and discard. ICES J Mar Sci 71:1298–1307.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Enever R, Revill A, Grant A (2007) Discarding in the english channel, western approaches, celtic and Irish seas (ICES subarea VII). Fish Res 86:143–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erzini K, Costa ME, Bentes L, Borges TC (2002) A comparative study of the species composition of discards from five fisheries from the Algarve (southern Portugal). Fish Manag Ecol 9:31–40.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2400.2002.00284.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EU (2013) Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/ECGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans K, Weninger Q (2014) Information sharing and cooperative search in fisheries. Environ Resour Econ 58:353–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fauconnet L, Rochet M-J (2016) Fishing selectivity as an instrument to reach management objectives in an ecosystem approach to fisheries. Mar Pol 64:46–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feekings J, Bartolino V, Madsen N, Catchpole T (2012) Fishery discards: factors affecting their variability within a demersal trawl fishery. PLoS ONE 7:e36409.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036409 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Fraser HM, Greenstreet SPR, Fryer RJ, Piet GJ (2008) Mapping spatial variation in demersal fish species diversity and composition in the North Sea: accounting for species and size-related catchability in survey trawls. ICES J Mar Sci 65:531–538.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsn036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fryer RJ, O’Neill FG, Edridge A (2016) A meta-analysis of haddock size-selection data. Fish Fish 17:358–374.  https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fryer RJ, Summerbell K, O’Neill FG (2017) A meta-analysis of vertical stratification in demersal trawl gears. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 74:1243–1250.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2016-0391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. GearingUp (2017) https://tool.gearingup.eu/
  21. Gerritsen H, Lordan C (2011) Integrating vessel monitoring systems (VMS) data with daily catch data from logbooks to explore the spatial distribution of catch and effort at high resolution. ICES J Mar Sci 68:245–252.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerritsen HD, Lordan C, Minto C, Kraak SBM (2012) Spatial patterns in the retained catch composition of Irish demersal otter trawlers: high-resolution fisheries data as a management tool. Fish Res 129:127–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.06.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grazia Pennino M, Munoz F, Conesa D et al (2014) Bayesian spatio-temporal discard model in a demersal trawl fishery. J Sea Res 90:44–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2014.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ICES (2018) Celtic Seas ecoregion? Fisheries overview, including mixed-fisheries considerations. ICES.  https://doi.org/10.17895/ices.pub.4640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kacher M, Amara R (2005) Distribution and growth of 0-group European hake in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea: a spatial and inter-annual analyses. Fish Res 71:373–378.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fisheries.2004.08.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelleher K (2005) Discards in the world’s marine fisheries: an update. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 470. Rome, FAOGoogle Scholar
  27. Kraan M, Uhlmann S, Steenbergen J et al (2013) The optimal process of self-sampling in fisheries: lessons learned in the Netherlands. J Fish Biol 83:963–973.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12192 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Legendre P, Legendre L (2012) Numerical ecology, 3rd edn. Elsevier, The NetherlandGoogle Scholar
  29. Little AS, Needle CL, Hilborn R et al (2015) Real-time spatial management approaches to reduce bycatch and discards: experiences from Europe and the United States. Fish Fish 16:576–602.  https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Macdonald P, Cleasby IR, Angus CH, Marshall CT (2014) The contribution of quota to the discards problem: a case study on the complexity of common megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis discarding in the northern North Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 71:1256–1265.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maina I, Kavadas S, Machias A et al (2018) Modelling the spatiotemporal distribution of fisheries discards: a case study on eastern Ionian Sea trawl fishery. J Sea Res 139:10–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2018.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mangi SC, Kupschus S, Mackinson S et al (2018) Progress in designing and delivering effective fishing industry-science data collection in the UK. Fish Fish 19:622–642.  https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martinez I, Ellis JR, Scott B, Tidd A (2013) The fish and fisheries of Jones Bank and the wider Celtic Sea. Prog Oceanogr 117:89–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2013.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mateo M, Pawlowski L, Robert M (2017) Highly mixed fisheries: fine-scale spatial patterns in retained catches of French fisheries in the Celtic Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 74:91–101.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsw129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maxwell DL, Stelzenmueller V, Eastwood PD, Rogers SI (2009) Modelling the spatial distribution of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), sole (Solea solea) and thornback ray (Raja clavata) in UK waters for marine management and planning. J Sea Res 61:258–267.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2008.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moore C, Davie S, Robert M et al (2019) Defining métier for the Celtic Sea mixed fisheries: a multiannual international study of typology. Fish Res 219:105310.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2019.105310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morandeau G, Macher C, Sanchez F et al (2014) Why do fishermen discard? Distribution and quantification of the causes of discards in the Southern Bay of Biscay passive gear fisheries. Mar Policy 48:30–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.02.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Neill FG, Mutch K (2017) Selectivity in trawl fishing gears. Scot Mar Freshw Sci 8(1):1Google Scholar
  39. Paradinas I, Marin M, Grazia Pennino M et al (2016) Identifying the best fishing-suitable areas under the new European discard ban. ICES J Mar Sci 73:2479–2487.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsw114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pennino MG, Vilela R, Valeiras J, Bellido JM (2017) Discard management: a spatial multi-criteria approach. Mar Pol 77:144–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.12.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pérez R, Gilman E, Huntington T, et al (2019) A third assessment of global marine fisheries discards. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 633. Rome, FAO, 78 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Persohn C, Lorance P, Trenkel VM (2009) Habitat preferences of selected demersal fish species in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea, North-East Atlantic. Fish Oceanogr 18:268–285.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2009.00515.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pointin F, Cornou A-S, Prod’homme R et al (2018) A method to address the non-random spatial distribution of on-board observer data to map landings and discards. Fish Res 199:242–251.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2017.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reid D, Fauconnet L (2018) Decision support tool for fishers incorporating information from tasks 4.1, 4.2 and information on unwanted catches derived from scientific data. DiscardLess deliverable D4.3.Google Scholar
  45. Rochet MJ, Peronnet I, Trenkel VM (2002) An analysis of discards from the French trawler fleet in the Celtic Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 59:538–552.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2002.1182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schrope M (2010) Fisheries: What’s the catch? Nature 465:540–542.  https://doi.org/10.1038/465540a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharples J, Ellis JR, Nolan G, Scott BE (2013) Fishing and the oceanography of a stratified shelf sea. Prog Oceanogr 117:130–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2013.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sigurdardottir S, Stefansdottir EK, Condie H et al (2015) How can discards in European fisheries be mitigated? Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of potential mitigation methods. Mar Pol 51:366–374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sims M, Cox T, Lewison R (2008) Modeling spatial patterns in fisheries bycatch: improving bycatch maps to aid fisheries management. Ecol Appl 18:649–661.  https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0685.1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Verdoit M (2003) Are commercial logbook and scientific CPUE data useful for characterizing the spatial and seasonal distribution of exploited populations? The case of the Celtic Sea whiting. Aquat Living Resour 16:467–485.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquliv.2003.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Viana M, Jackson AL, Graham N, Parnell AC (2013) Disentangling spatio-temporal processes in a hierarchical system: a case study in fisheries discards. Ecography 36:569–578.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07853.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vilela R, Maria Bellido J (2015) Fishing suitability maps: helping fishermen reduce discards. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 72:1191–1201.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0522 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Woods PJ, Elvarsson BT, Sigurdsson T, Stefansson G (2018) Evaluating the effectiveness of real-time closures for reducing susceptibility of small fish to capture. ICES J Mar Sci 75:298–308.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsx152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zeller D, Cashion T, Palomares M, Pauly D (2018) Global marine fisheries discards: a synthesis of reconstructed data. Fish Fish 19:30–39.  https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ifremer, Unité de Sciences et Technologies HalieutiquesLaboratoire de Technologie et Biologie HalieutiqueLorientFrance
  2. 2.Marine InstituteRinvilleIreland
  3. 3.Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture ScienceLowestoftUK

Personalised recommendations