Advertisement

Technical mitigation to reduce marine mammal bycatch and entanglement in commercial fishing gear: lessons learnt and future directions

  • Sheryl HamiltonEmail author
  • G. Barry Baker
Reviews

Abstract

Fisheries bycatch is one of the biggest threats to marine mammal populations. A literature review was undertaken to provide a comprehensive assessment and synopsis of gear modifications and technical devices to reduce marine mammal bycatch in commercial trawl, purse seine, longline, gillnet and pot/trap fisheries. Successfully implemented mitigation measures include acoustic deterrent devices (pingers) which reduced the bycatch of some small cetacean species in gillnets, appropriately designed exclusion devices which reduced pinniped bycatch in some trawl fisheries, and various pot/trap guard designs that reduced marine mammal entrapment. However, substantial development and research of mitigation options is required to address the bycatch of a range of species in many fisheries. No reliably effective technical solutions to reduce small cetacean bycatch in trawl nets are available, although loud pingers have shown potential. There are currently no technical options that effectively reduce marine mammal interactions in longline fisheries, although development of catch and hook protection devices is promising. Solutions are also needed for species, particularly pinnipeds and small cetaceans, that are not deterred by pingers and continue to be caught in static gillnets. Large whale entanglements in static gear, particularly buoy lines for pots/traps, needs urgent attention although there is encouraging research on rope-less pot/trap systems and identification of rope colours that are more detectable to whale species. Future mitigation development and deployment requires rigorous scientific testing to determine if significant bycatch reduction has been achieved, as well as consideration of potentially conflicting mitigation outcomes if multiple species are impacted by a fishery.

Keywords

By-catch Cetacean Gillnet Longline Pinniped Trawl 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Mary-Anne Lea and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. We thank the University of Tasmania for support for S.H.

Supplementary material

11160_2019_9550_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1107 kb)

References

  1. Allen SJ, Tyne JA, Kobryn HT, Bejder L, Pollock KH, Loneragan NR (2014) Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery. PLoS ONE 9:12Google Scholar
  2. Amano M, Kusumoto M, Abe M, Akamatsu T (2017) Long-term effectiveness of pingers on a small population of finless porpoises in Japan. Endanger Species Res 32:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson RC (2014) Cetaceans and Tuna Fisheries in the Western and Central Indian Ocean. International Pole and Line Foundation (IPNLF) Technical Report 2, International Pole and Line Foundation, London. http://iotc.org/documents/cetaceans-and-tuna-fisheries-western-and-central-indian-ocean. Accessed 1 October 2016
  4. Arangio R (2012) Minimising whale depredation on longline fishing. Australian Toothfish fisheries. A report for Nuffield Australia Farming Scholars. https://www.latitude42.com.au/documents/reports/. Accessed 15 November 2018
  5. Archer F, Gerrodette T, Chivers S, Jackson A (2004) Annual estimates of the unobserved incidental kill of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata attenuata) calves in the tuna purse-seine fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific. Fish Bull 102:233–244Google Scholar
  6. Arnould JPY, Trinder DM, McKinley CP (2003) Interactions between fur seals and a squid jig fishery in southern Australia. Mar Freshw Res 54:979–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker GB, Hamilton S, McIntosh R, Finley LA (2014) Technical review: development and application of bycatch mitigation devices for marine mammals in mid-water trawl gear. report prepared for the Department of the Environment, Australia (on behalf of the expert panel) 12 May 2014. http://www.environment.gov.au/marine/publications/technical-review-bycatch-mitigation-devices. Accessed 10 August 2016
  8. Baldwin K, Byrne J, Brickett B (2012) Taut vertical line and North Atlantic right whale flipper interaction: experimental observations. University of New Hampshire and Blue Water Concepts. http://bycatch.org/sites/default/files/Baldwin%20et%20al%202012.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2017
  9. Barlow J, Cameron GA (2003) Field experiments show that acoustic pingers reduce marine mammal bycatch in the California drift gill net fishery. Mar Mammal Sci 19:265–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayse S, Kerstetter D (2010) Assessing bycatch reduction potential of variable strength hooks for pilot whales in a western north Atlantic pelagic longline fishery. J N C Acad Sci 126:6–14Google Scholar
  11. Berg Soto A, Cagnazzi D, Everingham Y, Parra GJ, Noad M, Marsh H (2013) Acoustic alarms elicit only subtle responses in the behaviour of tropical coastal dolphins in Queensland, Australia. Endanger Species Res 20:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berrow S, Cosgrove R, Leeuney R, O’Brien J, McGraith D, Dalgard J, Le Gall Y (2009) Effect of acoustic deterrents on the behaviour of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). J Cetacean Res Manag 10:227–233Google Scholar
  13. Bigelow KA, Kerstetter DW, Dancho MG, Marchetti JA (2012) Catch rates with variable strength circle hooks in the Hawaii-based tuna longline fishery. Bull Mar Sci 88:425–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bord Iascaigh Mhara, University of St Andrews (2010) Mitigation of incidental catches of cetaceans in EU waters. Report to European Parliament’s Committee on Fisheries. http://www.ascobans.org/sites/default/files/document/DGIPOL_final-report-mitigationBYC-EUwaters_2010.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2017
  15. Bordino P, Kraus S, Albareda D, Fazio A, Palmerio A, Mendez M, Botta S (2002) Reducing incidental mortality of Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) with acoustic warning devices attached to fishing nets. Mar Mammal Sci 19:614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bordino P, Mackay AI, Werner TB, Northridge SP, Read AJ (2013) Franciscana bycatch is not reduced by acoustically reflective or physically stiffened gillnets. Endanger Species Res 21:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowles AE, Anderson RC (2012) Behavioral responses and habituation of pinnipeds and small cetaceans to novel objects and simulated fishing gear with and without a pinger. Aquat Mamm 38:161–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brillant SW, Trippel EA (2010) Elevations of lobster fishery groundlines in relation to their potential to entangle endangered North Atlantic right whales in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. ICES J Mar Sci 67:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell R, Holley D, Christianopolous D, Caputi N, Gales NJ (2008) Mitigation of incidental mortality of Australian sea lions in the west coast rock lobster fishery. Endanger Species Res 5:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlstrom J, Berggren P, Dinnetz F, Borjesson P (2002) A field experiment using acoustic alarms (pingers) to reduce harbour porpoise by-catch in bottom-set gillnets. ICES J Mar Sci 59:816–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carlstrom J, Berggren P, Tregenza N (2009) Spatial and temporal impact of pingers on porpoises. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 66:72–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carretta JV, Barlow J (2011) Long-term effectiveness, failure rates, and “dinner bell” properties of acoustic pingers in a gillnet fishery. Mar Technol Soc J 45:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carretta JV, Forney KA, Oleson EM, Weller D, W., Lang AR, Baker J, Muto MM, Hanson B, Orr A, J., Huber H, Lowry MS, Barlow J, Moore JE, Lynch D, Carswell L, Brownell RL (2017) U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: 2016. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/pdf/pacific_2016_final_sars_final.pdf. Accessed 30 January 2018
  24. CCAMLR (2017) Commission for the conservation of antarctic marine living resources (CCAMLR) Krill—biology, ecology and fishing. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/fisheries/krill-%E2%80%93-biology-ecology-and-fishing Accessed 1 June 2017
  25. Consortium for Wildlife Bycatch Reduction (2014) Stiff rope project. http://bycatch.org/project/stiff-rope. Accessed 20 July 2017
  26. Cox TM, Read AJ (2004) Echolocation behavior of harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena around chemically enhanced gill nets. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cox T, Read A, Solow AR, Tregenza NJC (2001) Will harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) habituate to pingers? J Cetacean Res Manag 3:81–86Google Scholar
  28. Cox TM, Read AJ, Swanner D, Urian K, Waples D (2003) Behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, to gillnets and acoustic alarms. Biol Conserv 115:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cox TM, Lewison RL, Zydelis R, Crowder LB, Safina C, Read AJ (2007) Comparing effectiveness of experimental and implemented bycatch reduction measures: the ideal and the real. Conserv Biol 21:1155–1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cramer KL, Perryman WL, Gerrodette T (2008) Declines in reproductive output in two dolphin populations depleted by the yellowfin tuna purse-seine fishery. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 369:273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crosby A, Tregenza N, Williams R (2013) The Banana Pinger trial: investigation into the Fishtek Banana Pinger to reduce cetacean bycatch in an inshore set net fishery. The Wildlife Trusts, Cornwall. http://www.ascobans.org/en/document/banana-pinger-trial-investigation-fishtek-banana-pinger-reduce-cetacean-bycatch-inshore-set. Accessed 1 June 2017
  32. Dawson SM (1991) Modifying gillnets to reduce entanglement of cetaceans. Mar Mammal Sci 7:274–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dawson SM, Lusseau D (2005) Pseudoreplication problems in studies of dolphin and porpoise reactions to pingers. Mar Mammal Sci 21:175–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dawson SM, Slooten E (2005) Management of gillnet bycatch of cetaceans in New Zealand. J Cetacean Res Manag 7:59–64Google Scholar
  35. Dawson SM, Read A, Slooten E (1998) Pingers, porpoises and power: uncertainties with using pingers to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans. Biol Conserv 84:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dawson SM, Northridge S, Waples D, Read AJ (2013) To ping or not to ping: the use of active acoustic devices in mitigating interactions between small cetaceans and gillnet fisheries. Endanger Species Res 19:201–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Boer M, Saulino JT, Leopold MF, Reijinders PJH, Simmonds MP (2012) Interactions between short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the winter pelagic pair-trawl fishery off Southwest England (UK). Int J Biodiv Cons 4:481–499Google Scholar
  38. Deepwater Group (2018) Marine mammal operational procedures, Version 9.0. http://deepwatergroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/MMOP-Version-9.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018
  39. Dotson RC, Griffith DA, King DL, Emmett RL (2010) Evaluation of a Marine Mammal Excluder Device (MMED) for a Nordic 264 Midwater Rope Trawl. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Memorandum-NMFS-SWFSC-455. https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/3820. Accessed 7 June 2017
  40. Dunlop RA, Noad MJ, Cato DH, Kniest E, Miller PJO, Smith JN, Stokes MD (2013) Multivariate analysis of behavioural response experiments in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). J Exp Biol 216:759–770CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Erbe C, Wintner S, Dudley SF, Plön S (2016) Revisiting acoustic deterrence devices: Long-term bycatch data from South Africa’s bather protection nets. Proc Meet Acoust 27:1–14Google Scholar
  42. Fahlman A, Crespo-Picazo JL, Sterba-Boatwright B, Stacy BA, Garcia-Parraga D (2017) Defining risk variables causing gas embolism in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) caught in trawls and gillnets. Sci Rep 7:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. FAO (2018) Expert workshop on means and methods for reducing marine mammal morality in fishing and aquaculture operations. Rome, 20–23 March 2018. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). http://www.fao.org/3/I9993EN/i9993en.pdf. Accessed 10 August 2018
  44. Fertl D, Leatherwood S (1997) Cetacean interactions with trawls: A preliminary review. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 22:219–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gabriel O, Lange K, Dahm E, Wendt T (eds) (2005) Fish catching methods of the world, 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. Gazo M, Gonzalvo J, Aguilar A (2008) Pingers as deterrents of bottlenose dolphins interacting with trammel nets. Fish Res 92:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gearin PJ, Gosho ME, Laake JL, Cooke L, De Long RL, Hughes KM (2000) Experimental testing of acoustic alarms (pingers) to reduce bycatch of harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in the state of Washington. J Cetacean Res Manag 2:1–9Google Scholar
  48. Geijer CKA, Read AJ (2013) Mitigation of marine mammal bycatch in U.S. fisheries since 1994. Biol Conserv 159:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gerrodette T, Forcada J (2005) Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 291:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gilman EL (2011) Bycatch governance and best practice mitigation technology in global tuna fisheries. Mar Policy 35:590–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gilman E, Brothers N, McPherson G, Dalzell P (2006) A review of cetacean interactions with longline gear. J Cetacean Res Manag 8:215–223Google Scholar
  52. Goetz S, Laporta M, Portela JM, Santos MB, Pierce GJ (2011) Experimental fishing with an “umbrella-and-stones” system to reduce interactions of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and seabirds with bottom-set longlines for Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) in the Southwest Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci 68:228–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goetz S, Santos MB, Vingada J, Costas DC, Villanueva AG, Pierce GJ (2015) Do pingers cause stress in fish? An experimental tank study with European sardine, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Actinopterygii, Clupeidae), exposed to a 70 kHz dolphin pinger. Hydrobiologia 749:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gray CA, Kennelly SJ (2018) Bycatches of endangered, threatened and protected species in marine fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fish 28:521–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Griffiths SP, Brewer DT, Heales DS, Milton DA, Stobutzki IC (2006) Validating ecological risk assessments for fisheries: assessing the impacts of turtle excluder devices on elasmobranch bycatch populations in an Australian trawl fishery. Mar Freshw Res 57:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Guinet C, Tixier P, Gasco N, Duhamel G (2015) Long-term studies of Crozet Island killer whales are fundamental to understanding the economic and demographic consequences of their depredation behaviour on the Patagonian toothfish fishery. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1587–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hall MA (1998) An ecological view of the tuna-dolphin problem: impacts and trade-offs. Rev Fish Biol Fish 8:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hall SJ, Mainprize BM (2005) Managing by-catch and discards: how much progress are we making and how can we do better? Fish Fish 6:134–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hall M, Roman M (2013) Bycatch and non-tuna catch in the tropical tuna purse seine fisheries of the world. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 568. Rome, FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i2743e/i2743e.pdf. Accessed 7 June 2017
  60. Hall M, Alverson DL, Metusals KI (2000) By-catch: problems and solutions. Mar Pollut Bull 41:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hamer DJ, Goldsworthy SD (2006) Seal-fishery operational interactions: identifying the environmental and operational aspects of a trawl fishery that contribute to by-catch and mortality of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Biol Conserv 130:517–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hamer DJ, Ward TM, McGarvey R (2008) Measurement, management and mitigation of operational interactions between the South Australian Sardine Fishery and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Biol Conserv 141:2865–2878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hamer DJ, Ward TM, Shaughnessy PD, Clark SR (2011) Assessing the effectiveness of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park in protecting the endangered Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea from bycatch mortality in shark gillnets. Endanger Species Res 14:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hamer DJ, Childerhouse S, Gales NJ (2012) Odontocete bycatch and depredation in longline fisheries: a review of available literature and of potential solutions. Mar Mammal Sci 28:E345–E374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hamer DJ, Goldsworthy SD, Costa DP, Fowler SL, Page B, Sumner MD (2013) The endangered Australian sea lion extensively overlaps with and regularly becomes by-catch in demersal shark gill-nets in South Australian shelf waters. Biol Conserv 157:386–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hamer DJ, Childerhouse S, McKinlay JP, Double MC, Gales NJ (2015) Two devices for mitigating odontocete bycatch and depredation at the hook in tropical pelagic longline fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1691–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hamilton S, Baker GB (2015a) Review of research and assessments on the efficacy of sea lion exclusion devices in reducing the incidental mortality of New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri in the Auckland Islands squid trawl fishery. Fish Res 161:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hamilton S, Baker GB (2015b) Review of research and assessments on the efficacy of Sea Lion Exclusion Devices in reducing the incidental mortality of New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri in the Auckland Islands squid trawl fishery: reply to Robertson (2015). Fish Res 165:130–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hanamseth R, Barry Baker G, Sherwen S, Hindell M, Lea MA (2018) Assessing the importance of net colour as a seabird bycatch mitigation measure in gillnet fishing. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 28:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Harcourt R, Pirotta V, Heller G, Peddemors V, Slip D (2014) A whale alarm fails to deter migrating humpback whales: an empirical test. Endanger Species Res 25:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hardy T, Williams R, Caslake R, Tregenza N (2012) An investigation of acoustic deterrent devices to reduce cetacean bycatch in an inshore set net fishery. J Cetacean Res Manag 12:85–90Google Scholar
  72. Hatfield BB, Ames JA, Estes JA, Tinker MT, Johnson AB, Staedler MM, Harris MD (2011) Sea otter mortality in fish and shellfish traps: estimating potential impacts and exploring possible solutions. Endanger Species Res 13:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hembree D, Harwood MB (1987) Pelagic gillnet modification trials in northern Australian seas. Rep Int Whal Comm 37:369–373Google Scholar
  74. Hemmingsson M, Fjalling A, Lunneryd SG (2008) The pontoon trap: description and function of a seal-safe trap-net. Fish Res 93:357–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hodge R (2015) Communications and extension in the Southern Rock Lobster fishery. Southern Rocklobster Limited Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), FRDC Project No 2012/511, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  76. Hodgson AJ, Marsh H, Delean S, Marcus L (2007) Is attempting to change marine mammal behaviour a generic solution to the bycatch problem? A dugong case study. Anim Conserv 10:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. How J, Coughran D, Smith J, Double MC, Harrison J, McMath J, Hebiton B, Denham A (2015) Effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce interactions between commercial fishing gear and whales. FRDC Project No 2013/03. Fisheries Research Report No. 267. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/research_reports/frr267.pdf. Accessed 12 December 2016
  78. Hucke-Gaete R, Moreno C, Arata J (2004) Operational interactions of sperm whales and killer whales with the Patagonian toothfish industrial fishery off southern Chile. CCAMLR Sci 11:127–140Google Scholar
  79. Jaiteh V, Allen S, Meeuwig J, Loneragan N (2013) Subsurface behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with fish trawl nets in northwestern Australia: implications for bycatch mitigation. Mar Mammal Sci 29:266–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jaiteh VF, Allen SJ, Meeuwig JJ, Loneragan NR (2014) Combining in-trawl video with observer coverage improves understanding of protected and vulnerable species by-catch in trawl fisheries. Mar Freshw Res 65:830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jannot J, Heery E, Bellman M, Majewski J (2011) Estimated bycatch of marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles in the US west coast commercial groundfish fishery, 2002–2009. https://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fram/observation/pdf/mmsbt_report02-09.pdf. Accessed 22 November 2018
  82. Johnson A, Salvador G, Kenney J, Robbins J, Kraus S, Landry S, Clapham P (2005) Fishing gear involved in entanglements of right and humpback whales. Mar Mammal Sci 21:635–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kastelein RA, van der Heul S, van der Veen J, Verboom WC, Jennings N, de Haan D, Reijnders PJH (2007) Effects of acoustic alarms, designed to reduce small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries, on the behaviour of North Sea fish species in a large tank. Mar Environ Res 64:160–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kastelein RA, van den Belt I, Helder-Hoek L, Gransier R, Johansson T (2015) Behavioral responses of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to 25-kHz FM sonar signals. Aquat Mammals 41:311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Knowlton AR, Hamilton PK, Marx MK, Pettis HM, Kraus SD (2012) Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: a 30 yr retrospective. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 466:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Knowlton AR, Robbins J, Landry S, McKenna HA, Kraus SD, Werner TB (2016) Effects of fishing rope strength on the severity of large whale entanglements. Conserv Biol 30:318–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kock KH, Purves MG, Duhamel G (2006) Interactions between cetacean and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. Polar Biol 29:379–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Konigson S, Lovgren J, Hjelm J, Ovegard M, Ljunghager F, Lunneryd SG (2015) Seal exclusion devices in cod pots prevent seal bycatch and affect their catchability of cod. Fish Res 167:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kot BW, Sears R, Anis A, Nowacek DP, Gedamke J, Marshall CD (2012) Behavioral responses of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) to experimental fishing gear in a coastal environment. J Exptl Mar Biol Ecol 413:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kraus SD, Hagbloom M (2016) Assessments of vision to reduce right whale entanglements. Final Project Report to the Consortium for Wildlife Bycatch Reduction, New England Aquarium. http://www.bycatch.org/content/assessments-vision-reduce-right-whale-entanglements. Accessed 1 June 2017
  91. Kraus SD, Read A, Solow AR, Baldwin K, Spradlin T, Anderson E, Williamson J (1997) Acoustic alarms reduce porpoise mortality. Nature 388:525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kraus S, Fasick J, Werner T, McFarron P (2014) Enhancing the visibility of fishing ropes to reduce right whale entanglements. Bycatch Reduct Eng Program 1:67–75Google Scholar
  93. Kyhn LA, Jorgensen PB, Carstensen J, Bech NI, Tougaard J, Dabelsteen T, Teilmann J (2015) Pingers cause temporary habitat displacement in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 526:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lagerquist B, Windsor M, Mate B (2012) Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for grey whales along the Oregon Coast. https://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088663. Accessed 9 November 2018
  95. Larsen F, Eigaard OR (2014) Acoustic alarms reduce bycatch of harbour porpoises in Danish North Sea gillnet fisheries. Fish Res 153:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Larsen F, Eigaard OR, Tougaard J (2007) Reduction of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) bycatch by iron-oxide gillnets. Fish Res 85:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Larsen F, Krog C, Eigaard OR (2013) Determining optimal pinger spacing for harbour porpoise bycatch mitigation. Endanger Species Res 20:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Laverick S, Douglas L, Childerhouse S, Burns D (2017) Entanglement of cetaceans in pot/trap lines and set nets and a review of potential mitigation methods. Blue Planet Marine report to Department of Conservation, New Zealand. http://www.doc.govt.nz/our-work/conservation-services-programme/csp-reports/2016-17/entanglement-of-cetaceans-in-pot-trap-lines-and-set-nets-and-a-review-of-potential-mitigation-methods/. Accessed 5 June 2017
  99. Leaper RC, Calderan S (2018) Review of methods used to reduce risks of cetacean bycatch and entanglements. UNEP/Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 76 pages. CMS Technical Series Publication No. 38Google Scholar
  100. Leeney RH, Berrow S, McGrath D, O’Brien J, Cosgrove R, Godley BJ (2007) Effects of pingers on the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 87:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lewison R, Crowder L, Read A, Freeman S (2004) Understanding impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine megafauna. Trends Ecol Evol 19:598–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lewison RL, Crowder LB, Wallace BP, Moore JE, Cox T, Zydelis R, McDonald S, DiMatteo A, Dunn DC, Kot CY, Bjorkland R, Kelez S, Soykan C, Stewart KR, Sims M, Boustany A, Read AJ, Halpin P, Nichols WJ, Safina C (2014) Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:5271–5276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lien J, Barney W, Todd S, Seton R (1992) Effects of adding sounds to cod traps on the probability of collisions by humpback whales. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA, Supin AY (eds) Marine mammal sensory systems. Plenum Press, New York, pp 701–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Liggins G (2016) Eastern Rock Lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi fishery status report, Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales. http://www.fish.gov.au/report/25-Eastern-Rock-Lobster-2016 Accessed 7 July 2017
  105. Lyle JM, Willcox ST, Hartmann K (2016) Underwater observations of seal-fishery interactions and the effectiveness of an exclusion device in reducing bycatch in a midwater trawl fishery. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 73:436–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lyssikatos M (2015) Estimates of cetacean and pinniped bycatch in Northeast and mid-Atlantic bottom trawl fisheries, 2008–2013. Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document 15–19. https://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/crd/crd1519/crd1519.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2017
  107. Mackay AI, Goldsworthy S (2017) Experimental field trials to test if alternative sea lion excluder devices (SLEDs) adequately prevent Australian sea lions from entering rock lobster pots. Fisheries Research & Development Corporation report, Project No. 2016-055, Australia. http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/300058/Experimental_field_trials_to_test_if_alternative_sea_lion_excluder_devices_SLEDs_adequately_prevent_Australian_sea_lions_from_entering_rock_lobster_pots.pdf. Accessed 21 December 2017
  108. Mackay AI, Knuckey IA (2013) Mitigation of marine mammal bycatch in gillnet fisheries using acoustic devices—literature review. Final Report to the Australian Fisheries Management Authority. South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI). http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/257805/Gillnet_Acoustic_Bycatch_Report.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2017
  109. Mangel JC, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Witt MJ, Hodgson DJ, Godley BJ (2013) Using pingers to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans in Peru’s small-scale driftnet fishery. Oryx 47:595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mangel JC, Wang J, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Pingo S, Jimenez A, Carvalho F, Swimmer Y, Godley BJ (2018) Illuminating gillnets to save seabirds and the potential for multi-taxa bycatch mitigation. R Soc Open Sci 5:180254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Martin GR, Crawford R (2015) Reducing bycatch in gillnets: a sensory ecology perspective. Global Ecol Conserv 3:28–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McLellan WA, Arthur LH, Mallette SD, Thornton SW, McAlarney RJ, Read AJ, Pabst DA (2015) Longline hook testing in the mouths of pelagic odontocetes. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1706–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McPherson GR (2017) Bycatch mitigation in the Queensland Shark Control Programme: results not previously acknowledged. Shark mitigation and deterrent measures Submission 67 to the Australian Senate Hearing, 3rd March 2017. ‘The efficacy and regulation of shark mitigation and deterrent measures’Google Scholar
  114. McPherson GR, Clague CI, McPherson CR, Madry A, Bedwell I, Turner P, Cato DH, Kreutz D (2008) Reduction of interactions by toothed whales with fishing gear: phase 1. Development and assessment of depredation mitigation devices around longlines. Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation Report Number 2003/016. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/interactions/fkwtrt/meeting2/mcpherson_et_al_2003.pdf. Accessed 15/12/2016
  115. Mooney TA, Nachtigall PE, Whitlow WLA (2004) Target strength of a nylon monofilament and an acoustically enhanced gillnet: predications of bisonar detection ranges. Aquat Mamm 30:220–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mooney TA, Pacini AF, Nachtigall PE (2009) False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) echolocation and acoustic disruption: implications for longline bycatch and depredation. Can J Zool Rev Can Zool 87:726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Moore M (2009) Current issues facing North Atlantic right whales and stakeholders. Boston Coll Environ Aff Law Rev 36:309–317Google Scholar
  118. Moore MJ, Bogomolni AL, Dennison SE, Early G, Garner MM, Hayward BA, Lentell BJ, Rotstein DS (2009) Gas bubbles in seals, dolphins, and porpoises entangled and drowned at depth in gillnets. Vet Pathol 46:536–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Moreno C, Castro R, Mújica L, Reyes P (2008) Significant conservation benefits obtained from the use of a new fishing gear in the Chilean Patagonian toothfish fishery. CCAMLR Science 15:79–91Google Scholar
  120. Morizur Y, Le Gall Y, Clais C, Van Canneyt O, Larnaud P (2007) Setting Cetasaver_3 and Cetasaver_7 on pelagic trawls and comparative trials in the seabass fishery. NECESSITY Contract 501605 Periodic Activity Report No 2—Annex 7.6; IFREMER (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea)Google Scholar
  121. Morizur Y, Le Gall Y, Van Canneyt O, Gamblin C (2008) Tests d’efficacité du repulsive acoustique CETASAVER à bord des chalutiers commerciaux français—(Effectiveness of acoustic deterrent CETASAVER testing on board French commercial trawlers). Ifremer. Centre de Brest, Sciences et Technologie Halieutiques. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/4506/. Accessed 13/12/2016
  122. National Research Council (1992) Dolphins and the tuna industry. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  123. NOAA (2018) Fishing gear: gillnets. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) fact sheet. https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/national/bycatch/fishing-gear-gillnets. Accessed 9 November 2018
  124. Noke WD, Odell DK (2002) Interactions between the Indian River Lagoon blue crab fishery and the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Mar Mammal Sci 18:819–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Northridge S, Sanderson D, Mackay AI, Hammond PS (2003) Analysis and mitigation of cetacean bycatch in UK fisheries. Final Project Report for Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, UK. http://www.bycatch.org/articles/analysis-and-mitigation-cetacean-bycatch-uk-fisheries. Accessed 30 January 2017
  126. Northridge S, Cargill A, Coram A, Mandleberg L, Calderan S, Reid B (2010) Entanglement of minke whales in Scottish waters: an investigation into occurrence, causes and mitigation. Final Report to Scottish Government CR/2007/49, Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, UK. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.628.5013&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Accessed 7 June 2017
  127. Northridge S, Kingston A, Mackay AI, Lonergan M (2011) Bycatch of vulnerable species: understanding the process and mitigating the impacts. Final Report to DEFRA Marine and Fisheries Science Unit, Project no MF1003. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, UK. https://risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk/portal/en/researchoutput/entanglement-of-minke-whales-in-scottish-waters-an-investigation-into-occurrence–causes-and-mitigation(0490f404-0cc3-4443-b0ef-ea134fef081a).html. Accessed 1 June 2017
  128. Northridge S, Coram A, Kingston A, Crawford R (2017) Disentangling the causes of protected-species bycatch in gillnet fisheries. Conserv Biol 31:686–695CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. O’Connell V, Straley J, Liddle J, Wild L, Behnken L, Falvey D, Thode A (2015) Testing a passive deterrent on longlines to reduce sperm whale depredation in the Gulf of Alaska. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1667–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Oksanen SM, Ahola MP, Oikarinen J, Kunnasranta M (2015) A novel tool to mitigate by-catch mortality of Baltic seals in coastal fyke net fishery. PLoS ONE 10:e0127510CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Orphanides CD, Palka DL (2013) Analysis of harbor porpoise gillnet bycatch, compliance, and enforcement trends in the US northwestern Atlantic, January 1999 to May 2010. Endanger Species Res 20:251–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pace RM, Cole TVN, Henry AG (2014) Incremental fishing gear modifications fail to significantly reduce large whale serious injury rates. Endanger Species Res 26:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Palka DL, Rossman MC, VanAtten AS, Orphanides CD (2008) Effect of pingers on harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) bycatch in the US Northeast gillnet fishery. J Cetacean Res Manag 10(3):217–226Google Scholar
  134. Partan J, Ball K (2016) Rope-less fishing technology development. Project 5 Final Report, Consortium for Wildlife Bycatch Reduction. http://www.bycatch.org/articles/rope-less-fishing-technology-development. Accessed 9 August 2017
  135. Peckham SH, Lucero-Romero J, Maldonado-Diaz D, Rodriguez-Sanchez A, Senko J, Wojakowski M, Gaos A (2016) Buoyless nets reduce sea turtle bycatch in coastal net fisheries. Conserv Lett 9:114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pirotta V, Slip D, Jonsen ID, Peddemors VM, Cato DH, Ross G, Harcourt R (2016) Migrating humpback whales show no detectable response to whale alarms off Sydney, Australia. Endanger Species Res 29:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rabearisoa N, Bach P, Tixier P, Guinet C (2012) Pelagic longline fishing trials to shape a mitigation device of the depredation by toothed whales. J Exptl Mar Biol Ecol 432–433:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rabearisoa N, Bach P, Marsac F (2015) Assessing interactions between dolphins and small pelagic fish on branchline to design a depredation mitigation device in pelagic longline fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1682–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Read AJ (2008) The looming crisis: interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. J Mammal 89:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Read AJ (2013) Development of conservation strategies to mitigate the bycatch of harbor porpoises in the Gulf of Maine. Endanger Species Res 20:235–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Read AJ, Drinker P, Northridge S (2006) Bycatch of marine mammals in U.S. and global fisheries. Conserv Biol 20:163–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Reeves RR, Smith BD, Crespo EA, Notarbartolo di Sciara G (2003) Dolphins, whales and porpoises: 2002–2010 conservation action plan for the world’s cetaceans. IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/2003-009.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018
  143. Reeves RR, McClellan K, Werner TB (2013) Marine mammal bycatch in gillnet and other entangling net fisheries, 1990 to 2011. Endanger Species Res 20:71–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Restrepo V, Dagorn L (2011) International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) initiatives to develop and test bycatch mitigation options for tropical purse seine fisheries. ICCAT Collect Vol Sci Pap 66:2026–2035Google Scholar
  145. Restrepo V, Dagorn L, Itano D, Justel_Rubio A, Forget F, Filmalter J (2014) A summary of bycatch issues and ISSF mitigation initiatives to-date in purse seine fisheries, with emphasis on FADs. ISSF Technical Report 2014-11. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, DC, USA. https://www.iattc.org/Misc/IATTC-FADs-WG-Bibliography-PDFs/Restrepo-et-al-2014.pdf. Accessed 7 December 2016
  146. Restrepo V, Dagorn L, Moreno G, Forget F, Schaefer K, Sancristobal I, Muir J, Itano D (2016) Compendium of ISSF At-Sea Bycatch Mitigation Research Activities as of July, 2016. ISSF Technical Report 2016-13. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, McLean, Virginia, USA. http://www.iotc.org/documents/compendium-issf-sea-bycatch-mitigation-research-activities-july-2016. Accessed 16 March 2017
  147. Reyes P, Hucke-Gaete R, Torres-Florez JP (2012) First observations of operational interactions between bottom-trawling fisheries and South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens in south-central Chile. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 93:489–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Robbins J, Knowlton AR, Landry S (2015) Apparent survival of North Atlantic right whales after entanglement in fishing gear. Biol Conserv 191:421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Robertson BC (2015) Comment on “Review of research and assessments on the efficacy of sea lion exclusion devices in reducing the incidental mortality of New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri in the Auckland Islands squid trawl fishery”. Fish Res 165:127–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rojas-Bracho L, Reeves RR (2013) Vaquitas and gillnets: Mexico’s ultimate cetacean conservation challenge. Endanger Species Res 21:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Salvador G, Kenney J, Higgins J (2006) 2006 supplement to the large whale gear research summary. NOAA/Fisheries, Northeast Region. https://www.greateratlantic.fisheries.noaa.gov/whaletrp/plan/gear/2006%20Large%20Whale%20Gear%20Research%20Supplement.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018
  152. Salvador G, Kenny J, Higgins J (2008) 2008 Supplement to the large whale gear research summary. NOAA/Fisheries, Northeast Region. http://www.bycatch.org/articles/2008-supplement-large-whale-gear-research-summary. Accessed 9 November 2018
  153. Santana-Garcon J, Wakefield CB, Dorman SR, Denham A, Blight S, Molony BW, Newman SJ (2018) Risk versus reward: interactions, depredation rates and bycatch mitigation of dolphins in demersal fish trawls. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 75:2233–2240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Slooten E (2013) Effectiveness of area-based management in reducing bycatch of the New Zealand dolphin. Endanger Species Res 20:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Soffker M, Trathan P, Clark J, Collins MA, Belchier M, Scott R (2015) The impact of predation by marine mammals on Patagonian toothfish longline fisheries. PLoS ONE 10:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Stephenson PC, Wells S (2006) Evaluation of the effectiveness of reducing dolphin catches with pingers and exclusion grids in the Pilbara trawl fishery. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), Fisheries Research Report No. 173, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. http://frdc.com.au/Archived-Reports/FRDC%20Projects/2004-068-DLD.PDF. Accessed 9 November 2018
  157. Sullivan BJ, Liddle GM, Munro GM (2004) Mitigation trials to reduce seabird mortality in pelagic trawl fisheries (Subarea 48.3). Report to CCAMLR, WG-FSA-04/80. 17 May 2017Google Scholar
  158. Suuronen P, Siira A, Kauppinen T, Riikonen R, Lehtonen E, Harjunpää H (2006) Reduction of seal-induced catch and gear damage by modification of trap-net design: design principles for a seal-safe trap-net. Fish Res 79:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tilzey R, Goldsworthy SD, Cawthorn M, Calvert N, Hamer D, Russell S, Shaughnessy P, Wise B, Stewardson C (2006) Assessment of seal–fishery interactions in the winter blue grenadier fishery off west Tasmania and the development of fishing practices and Seal Exclusion Devices to mitigate seal bycatch by factory trawlers. Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC). Project No. 2001/008. http://frdc.com.au/Archived-Reports/FRDC%20Projects/2001-008-DLD.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018
  160. Tixier P, Vacquie Garcia J, Gasco N, Duhamel G, Guinet C (2014) Mitigating killer whale depredation on demersal longline fisheries by changing fishing practices. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1610–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Tixier P, Gasco N, Duhamel G, Guinet C (2015) Habituation to an acoustic harassment device (AHD) by killer whales depredating demersal longlines. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1673–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Trippel EA, Holy NL, Palka DL, Shepherd TD, Melvin GD, Terhune JM (2003) Nylon barium sulphate gillnet reduces porpoise and seabird mortality. Mar Mammal Sci 19:240–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Trippel EA, Holy NL, Shepherd TD (2008) Barium sulphate modified fishing gear as a mitigative measure for cetacean incidental mortalities. J Cetacean Res Manag 10(3):235–246Google Scholar
  164. Turner H, DeCew J, Goldsmith D, Brimlow S (1999) Acoustically triggered buoyless lobster trap recovery system. UNH/U of Maine Sea Grant College Program. http://www.bycatch.org/content/acoustically-triggered-buoyless-lobster-trap-recovery-system. Accessed 9 November 2018
  165. Uhlmann SS, Broadhurst MK (2015) Mitigating unaccounted fishing mortality from gillnets and traps. Fish Fish 16:183–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. van den Hoff J, Kilpatrick R, Welsford D (2017) Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linn.) depredate toothfish longlines in the midnight zone. PLoS ONE 12:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Van der Hoop JM, Moore MJ, Barco SG, Cole TV, Daoust PY, Henry AG, McAlpine DF, McLellan WA, Wimmer T, Solow AR (2013) Assessment of management to mitigate anthropogenic effects on large whales. Conserv Biol 27:121–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. van Marlen B (2007) NECESSITY final publishable activity report. Contract 501605. NEphrops and CEtacean Species Selection Information and TechnologY, Scientific Support to Policy (SSP). Wageningen IMARES, Netherlands. https://www.ices.dk/explore-us/projects/EU-RFP/EU%20Repository/NECESSITY/FP6%20NECESSITY%20Final%20Activity%20Report.pdf. Accessed 21 February 2017
  169. Wade PR, Watters GM, Gerrodette T, Reilly SB (2007) Depletion of spotted and spinner dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific: modeling hypotheses for their lack of recovery. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 343:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wakefield CB, Blight S, Dorman SR, Denham A, Newman SJ, Wakeford J, Molony BW, Thomson AW, Syers C, O’Donaghue S (2014) Independent observations of catches and subsurface mitigation efficiencies of modified trawl nets for endangered, threatened and protected megafauna bycatch in the Pilbara fish trawl fishery. Fisheries Research Report No. 244. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 40 pp. http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/research_reports/frr244.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018
  171. Wakefield CB, Santana-Garcon J, Dorman SR, Blight S, Denham A, Wakeford J, Molony BW, Newman SJ (2017) Performance of bycatch reduction devices varies for chondrichthyan, reptile, and cetacean mitigation in demersal fish trawls: assimilating subsurface interactions and unaccounted mortality. ICES J Mar Sci 74:343–358Google Scholar
  172. Waples DM, Thorne LH, Hodge LEW, Burke EK, Urian KW, Read AJ (2013) A field test of acoustic deterrent devices used to reduce interactions between bottlenose dolphins and a coastal gillnet fishery. Biol Conserv 157:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Waring GT, Josephson E, Maze-Foley K, Rosel PE (2016) U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessements—2015. https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/11985. Accessed 22 November 2018
  174. Waugh SM, Filippi DP, Blyth R, Filippi PF (2011) Assessment of bycatch in gill net fisheries. Report to the convention on migratory species. http://www.cms.int/en/document/assessment-bycatch-gill-net-fisheries. Accessed 20 January 2017
  175. Werner TB, Kraus SD, Read A, Zollett EA (2006) Fishing techniques to reduce the bycatch of threatened marine animals. Mar Technol Soc J 40:50–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Werner TB, Northridge S, Press KM, Young N (2015) Mitigating bycatch and depredation of marine mammals in longline fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci 72:1576–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zeeberg J, Corten A, De Graaf E (2006) Bycatch and release of pelagic megafauna in industrial trawler fisheries off Northwest Africa. Fish Res 78:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zollett EA, Rosenberg AA (2005) A review of cetacean bycatch in trawl fisheries. Literature Review: prepared for the Northeast Fisheries Science Center, New Hampshire, U.S.A. https://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/reports/EN133F04SE1048.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Marine SocioecologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.Latitude 42 Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd.KetteringAustralia

Personalised recommendations