Toward a better understanding of freshwater fish responses to an increasingly drought-stricken world

  • Robert J. LennoxEmail author
  • David A. Crook
  • Peter B. Moyle
  • Daniel P. Struthers
  • Steven J. Cooke


Drought is a constant and important consequence of natural climatic processes and most freshwater fishes have adaptations to counter its effects. However, a changing global climate coupled with increasing human demand for water is reducing the availability of fresh water to fishes and contributing to more frequent and intense drought around the globe. A clear understanding of how fishes, fish habitat, and fisheries are affected by extended drought is needed to help resolve conflicts over water. We therefore identify key questions and research themes to promote the conservation of freshwater fishes as drought increases in length, frequency and severity. (1) How does drought affect fish habitat? (2) What is drought tolerance in fishes? (3) What are drought refuges for fishes? (4) What kills fish during drought? (5) What is the nature of species succession in drought-stricken waters? (6) What are the long-term consequences of drought to fishes? (7) How does climate change affect drought-fish interactions? (8) How does drought influence fisheries? Our limited ability to provide answers to these questions indicates that fish diversity and abundance worldwide is threatened by drought. Planning, including collection of long-term data, is necessary so that conservation and water re-allocation strategies can be implemented in a timely manner to maintain habitats necessary to support biodiversity during drought periods. Without increased understanding of physiological and behavioural factors that determine the tolerance of fishes to drought, it will not be possible to establish realistic targets for management and restoration of populations and species confronting increasing drought frequency and severity.


Abstraction Climate change Disturbance Fisheries Flow regulation Hydrology 



Lennox and Cooke are members of Ocean Tracking Network Canada. Lennox was supported by a scholarship from the Natural Resources and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Cooke is supported by NSERC (Discovery Grant), the Canada Research Chairs Program, and a Genome Canada Large-Scale Applied Research Project in Natural Resources and the Environment (“Sustaining Freshwater Fisheries in a Changing Environment”: Project code 242RTE).


  1. Adams SB, Warren ML Jr (2005) Recolonization by warmwater fishes and crayfishes after severe drought in upper coastal plain hill streams. Trans Am Fish Soc 134(5):1173–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn CH, Lee S, Song HM, Bang Park J, Joo JC (2016) Evaluation of the performance for an artificial deep pool (ADP) as an alternative fish shelter. Ecol Eng 93:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amoros C, Bornette G (2002) Connectivity and biocomplexity in waterbodies of riverine floodplains. Freshw Biol 47(4):761–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson KE, Paul AJ, McCauley E, Jackson LJ, Post JR, Nisbet RM (2006) Instream flow needs in streams and rivers: the importance of understanding ecological dynamics. Front Ecol Environ 4(6):309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arantes CC, Castello L, Cetra M, Schilling A (2013) Environmental influences on the distribution of arapaima in Amazon floodplains. Environ Biol Fish 96(10–11):1257–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arthington AH, Bunn SE, Poff NL, Naiman RJ (2006) The challenge of providing environmental flow rules to sustain river ecosystems. Ecol Appl 16(4):1311–1318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Attrill MJ, Power M (2000) Effects on invertebrate populations of drought-induced changes in estuarine water quality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 203:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Attrill MJ, Rundle SD, Thomas RM (1996) The influence of drought-induced low freshwater flow on an upper-estuarine macroinvertebrate community. Water Res 30(2):261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avery-Gomm S, Rosenfeld JS, Richardson JS, Pearson M (2014) Hydrological drought and the role of refugia in an endangered riffle-dwelling fish, Nooksack dace (Rhinichthys cataractae ssp.). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 71(11):1625–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Azevedo LS, Pestana IA, Rocha ARM, Meneguelli-Souza AC, Lima CAI, Almeida MG, Bastos WR, Souza CMM (2018) Drought promotes increases in total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fish from the lower Paraíba do Sul river, southeastern Brazil. Chemosphere 202:483–490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker TL, Jennings CA (2005) Striped bass survival in Lake Blackshear, Georgia during drought conditions: implications for restoration efforts in Gulf of Mexico drainages. Environ Biol Fish 72(1):73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baron JS, Poff NL, Angermeier PL, Dahm CN, Gleick PH, Hairston NG Jr, Jackson RB, Johnston CA, Richter BD, Steinman AD (2002) Meeting ecological and societal needs for fresh water. Ecol Appl 12:1247–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beatty SJ, Morgan DL, Lymbery AJ (2014) Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes. Global Change Biol 20(6):1794–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bêche LA, Connors PG, Resh VH, Merenlender AM (2009) Resilience of fishes and invertebrates to prolonged drought in two California streams. Ecography 32(5):778–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernardo JM, Ilhéu M, Matono P, Costa AM (2003) Interannual variation of fish assemblage structure in a Mediterranean river: implications of streamflow on the dominance of native or exotic species. Riv Res Appl 19(5–6):521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bickler PE, Buck LT (2007) Hypoxia tolerance in reptiles, amphibians, and fishes: life with variable oxygen availability. Annu Rev Physiol 69:145–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bogan MT, Lytle DA (2011) Severe drought drives novel community trajectories in desert stream pools. Freshw Biol 56(10):2070–2081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bond NR, Lake PS, Arthington AH (2008) The impacts of drought on freshwater ecosystems: an Australian perspective. Hydrobiologia 600:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boulton AJ, Lake PS (1992) The ecology of two intermittent streams in Victoria, Australia. Freshw Biol 27(1):99–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Branco P, Segurado P, Santos JM, Pinheiro P, Ferreira MT (2012) Does longitudinal connectivity loss affect the distribution of freshwater fish? Ecol Eng 48:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brookes JD, Aldridge KT, Bice CM, Deegan B, Ferguson GJ, Paton DC, Sheaves M, Ye Q, Zampatti BP (2015) Fish productivity in the lower lakes and Coorong, Australia, during severe drought. Trans R Soc South Aust 139(2):189–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bucater LB, Livore JP, Noell CJ, Ye Q (2013) Temporal variation of larval fish assemblages of the Murray Mouth in prolonged drought conditions. Mar Freshw Res 64(10):932–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Canton SP, Cline LD, Short R, Ward JV (1984) The macroinvertebrates and fish of a Colorado stream during a period of fluctuating discharge. Frewshw Biol 14(3):311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carvalho F, Power M, Forsberg BR, Castello L, Martins EG, Freitas CE (2018) Trophic Ecology of Arapaima sp. in a ria lake—river–floodplain transition zone of the Amazon. Ecol Freshw Fish 27(1):237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Castello L (2008) Lateral migration of Arapaima gigas in floodplains of the Amazon. Ecol Freshw Fish 17(1):38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chapman JM, Marcogliese DJ, Suski CD, Cooke SJ (2015) Variation in parasite communities and health indices of juvenile Lepomis gibbosus across a gradient of watershed land-use and habitat quality. Ecol Indic 57:564–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chessman BC (2013) Identifying species at risk from climate change: traits predict the drought vulnerability of freshwater fishes. Biol Conserv 160:40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Closs GE, Lake PS (1996) Drought, differential mortality and the coexistence of a native and an introduced fish species in a south east Australian intermittent stream. Environ Biol Fish 47(1):17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Conallin AJ, Hillyard KA, Walker KJ, Gillanders BM, Smith BB (2011) Offstream movements of fish during drought in a regulated lowland river. Riv Res Appl 27(10):1237–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Connell JH, Sousa WP (1983) On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. Am Nat 121(6):789–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cook ER, Seager R, Cane MA, Stahle DW (2007) North American drought: reconstructions, causes, and consequences. Earth Sci Rev 81(1–2):93–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooke SJ, Cowx IG (2004) The role of recreational fishing in global fish crises. Bioscience 54(9):857–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooke SJ, Nguyen VM, Dettmers JM, Arlinghaus R, Quist MC, Tweddle D, Weyl O et al (2016) Sustainable inland fisheries—perspectives from the recreational, commercial and subsistence sectors from around the globe. In: Closs GP, Krkosek M, Olden JD (eds) Conservation of freshwater fishes). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 467–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cooke SJ, Twardek WM, Lennox RJ, Zolderdo AJ, Bower SD, Gutowsky LF et al (2018) The nexus of fun and nutrition: recreational fishing is also about food. Fish Fish 19:201–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Costa MJ, Lennox RJ, Katopodis C, Cooke SJ (2017) Is there evidence for flow variability as an organism-level stressor in fluvial fish? J Ecohydraul 2(1):68–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cott PA, Sibley PK, Somers WM, Lilly MR, Gordon AM (2008) A review of water level fluctuations on aquatic biota with an emphasis on fishes in ice-covered lakes. J Am Water Resou Soc 44(2):343–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crook DA, Reich P, Bond NR, McMaster D, Koehn JD, Lake PS (2010) Using biological information to support proactive strategies for managing freshwater fish during drought. Mar Freshw Res 61(3):379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Crook DA, Lowe WH, Allendorf FW, Erős T, Finn DS, Gillanders BM, Hadwen WL, Harrod C, Hermoso V, Jennings S, Kilada RW, Nagelkerken I, Hansen MM, Page TJ, Riginos C, Fry B, Hughes JM, Kilada RW (2015) Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation. Sci Total Environ 534:52–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cucherousset J, Paillisson J-M, Carpentier A, Chapman LJ (2007) Fish emigration from temporary wetlands during drought: the role of physiological tolerance. Fund Appl Limnol 168:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dai A (2013) Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nat Clim Change 3(1):52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davey AJH, Kelly DJ, Biggs BJF (2006) Refuge-use strategies of stream fishes in response to extreme low flows. J Fish Biol 69:1047–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davies RW (1978) Pollution problems arising from the 1975–1976 drought. Proc R Soc Lon A Math Phys Sci 36:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dempson JB, O'connell MF, Cochrane NM (2001) Potential impact of climate warming on recreational fishing opportunities for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Newfoundland, Canada. Fish Manage Ecol 8(1):69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dexter T, Bond N, Hale R, Reich P (2014) Dispersal and recruitment of fish in an intermittent stream network. Austral Ecol 39(2):225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Diffenbaugh NS, Swain DL, Touma D (2015) Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California. Proc Nat Acad Sci 112(13):3931–3936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dolbeth M, Martinho F, Viegas I, Cabral H, Pardal MA (2008) Estuarine production of resident and nursery fish species: conditioning by drought events? Estuarine Coast Shelf Sci 78:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Döll P, Zhang J (2010) Impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems: a global-scale analysis of ecologically relevant river flow alterations. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 14(5):783–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dore MH (2005) Climate change and changes in global precipitation patterns: what do we know? Environ Int 31(8):1167–1181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dorn NJ (2008) Colonization and reproduction of large macroinvertebrates are enhanced by drought-related fish reductions. Hydrobiologia 605(1):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Douglas MR, Brunner PC, Douglas ME (2003) Drought in an evolutionary context: molecular variability in flannelmouth sucker (Catosomus latipinnis) from the Colorado River Basin of western North America. Freshw Biol 48:1256–1275Google Scholar
  51. Driver LJ, Hoeinghaus DJ (2016) Fish metacommunity responses to experimental drought are determined by habitat heterogeneity and connectivity. Freshw Biol 61(4):533–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ebner BC, Morgan DL, Kerezsy A, Hardie S, Beatty SJ, Seymour JE et al (2016) Enhancing conservation of Australian freshwater ecosystems: identification of freshwater flagship fishes and relevant target audiences. Fish Fish 17(4):1134–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Elliott JM (2000) Pools as refugia for brown trout during two summer droughts: trout responses to thermal and oxygen stress. J Fish Biol 56(4):938–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Elliott JM (2006) Periodic habitat loss alters the competitive coexistence between brown trout and bullheads in a small stream over 34 years. J Appl Ecol 75:54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Elliott JM, Hurley MA, Elliott JA (1997) Variable effects of droughts on the density of a sea-trout Salmo trutta population over 30 years. J Appl Ecol 34(5):1229–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Epstein PR, Defilippo C (2001) West Nile virus and drought. Global Change Hum Health 2(2):105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fabré NN, Castello L, Isaac VJ, Batista VS (2017) Fishing and drought effects on fish assemblages of the central Amazon Basin. Fish Res 188:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Falke JA, Fausch KD, Magelky R, Aldred A, Durnford Riley LK et al (2011) The role of groundwater pumping and drought in shaping ecological futures for stream fishes in a dryland river basin of the western Great Plains, USA. Ecohydrology 4(5):682–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Falkenmark M, Rockström J (2004) Balancing water for humans and nature: the new approach in ecohydrology. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Fencl JS, Mather ME, Costigan KH, Daniels MD (2015) How big of an effect do small dams have? Using geomorphological footprints to quantify spatial impact of low-head dams and identify patterns of across-dam variation. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0141210CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Ferguson GJ, Ward TM, Ye Q, Geddes MC, Gillanders BM (2010) Impacts of drought, flow regime and fishing on the fish assemblage in southern Australia’s largest temperate estuary. Fishery Stock Assessment Report for PIRSA Fisheries. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2010/000909-1. SARDI Research Report Series 498, pp 332Google Scholar
  62. Ferguson GJ, Ward TM, Ye Q, Geddes MC, Gillanders BM (2013) Impacts of drought, flow regime, and fishing on the fish assemblage in southern Australia’s largest temperate estuary. Estuaries Coast 36(4):737–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fischer P, Öhl U (2005) Effects of water-level fluctuations on the littoral benthic fish community in lakes: a mesocosm experiment. Behav Ecol 16(4):741–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Folke C, Hahn T, Olsson P, Norberg J (2005) Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:441–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Freeman MC, Marcinek PA (2006) Fish assemblage responses to water withdrawals and water supply reservoirs in piedmont streams. Environ Manag 38(3):435–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Freeman MC, Crawford MK, Barrett JC, Facey DE, Flood MG, Hill J et al (1988) Fish assemblage stability in a southern Appalachian stream. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45(11):1949–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Freitas CE, Siqueira-Souza FK, Humston R, Hurd LE (2013) An initial assessment of drought sensitivity in Amazonian fish communities. Hydrobiologia 705(1):159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gaeta JW, Sass GG, Carpenter SR (2014) Drought-driven lake level decline: effects on coarse woody habitat and fishes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 71(2):315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Galacatos K, Barriga-Salazar R, Stewart DJ (2004) Seasonal and habitat influences on fish communities within the lower Yasuni River basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon. Environ Biol Fish 71(1):33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Garcia C, Schumann DA, Howell J, Graeb BD, Bertrand KN, Klumb RA (2018) Seasonality, floods and droughts structure larval fish assemblages in prairie rivers. Ecol Freshw Fish 27(1):389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gido KB, Jackson DA (2010) Community ecology of stream fishes: concepts, approaches, and techniques. Am Fish Soc Symp 73:651–664Google Scholar
  72. Gido KB, Dodds WK, Eberle ME (2010) Retrospective analysis of fish community change during a half-century of landuse and streamflow changes. J N Am Benthol Soc 29(3):970–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gillson J, Scandol J, Suthers I (2009) Estuarine gillnet fishery catch rates decline during drought in eastern Australia. Fish Res 99(1):26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. González-Ortegón E, Baldó F, Arias A, Cuesta JA, Fernández-Delgado C, Vilas C, Drake P (2015) Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary. Sci Total Environ 503:213–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gowan C, Young MK, Fausch KD, Riley SC (1994) Restricted movement in resident stream salmonids: a paradigm lost? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51(11):2626–2637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gregory JM, Mitchell JFB, Brady AJ (1997) Summer drought in northern midlatitudes in a time-dependent CO2 climate experiment. J Clim 10(4):662–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Grossman GD, Dowd JF, Crawford M (1990) Assemblage stability in stream fishes: a review. Environ Manage 14(5):661–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Grossman GD, Ratajczak RE, Crawford M, Freeman MC (1998) Assemblage organization in stream fishes: effects of environmental variation and interspecific interactions. Ecol Monogr 68(3):395–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grossman GD, Ratajczak RE Jr, Farr MD, Wagner CM, Petty JT (2010) Why there are fewer fish upstream. In Community ecology of stream fishes: concepts, approaches, and techniques. Am Fish Soc Sym 73:63–81Google Scholar
  80. Guégan JF, Lek S, Oberdorff T (1998) Energy availability and habitat heterogeneity predict global riverine fish diversity. Nature 391(6665):382–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Guerreiro SB, Dawson RJ, Kilsby C, Lewis E, Ford A (2018) Future heat-waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities. Environ Res Lett 13(3):034009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hakala JP, Hartman KJ (2004) Drought effect on stream morphology and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in forested headwater streams. Hydrobiologia 515(1–3):203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Halliday IA, Robins JB, Mayer DG, Staunton-Smith J, Sellin MJ (2008) Effects of freshwater flow on the year-class strength of a non-diadromous estuarine finfish, king threadfin (Polydactylus macrochir), in a dry-tropical estuary. Mar Freshw Res 59(2):157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Halliday IA, Robins JB, Mayer DG, Staunton-Smith J, Sellin MJ (2010) Freshwater flows affect the year-class strength of barramundi Lates calcarife in the Fitzroy River estuary, Central Queensland. Proc R Soc Qld 116:1Google Scholar
  85. Halttunen E, Gjelland KØ, Hamel S, Serra-Llinares RM, Nilsen R, Arechavala-Lopez P, Skarðhamar J, Johnsen IA, Asplin L, Karlson Ø, Bjørn P-A, Finstad B (2018) Sea trout adapt their migratory behaviour in response to high salmon lice concentrations. J Fish Dis 41(6):953–967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hammer MP, Bice CM, Hall A, Frears A, Watt A, Whiterod NS et al (2013) Freshwater fish conservation in the face of critical water shortages in the southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 64(9):807–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Harden Jones FR (1968) Fish migration. E. Arnold Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  88. Harvey BC, Nakamoto RJ, White JL (2006) Reduced streamflow lowers dry-season growth of rainbow trout in a small stream. Trans Am Fish Soc 135(4):998–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hayashi M, Rosenberry DO (2002) Effects of ground water exchange on the hydrology and ecology of surface water. Groundwater 40(3):309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Helfman G, Collette BB, Facey DE, Bowen BW (2009) The diversity of fishes: biology, evolution, and ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Holmlund CM, Hammer M (1999) Ecosystem services generated by fish populations. Ecol Econ 29(2):253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Humphries P, Baldwin DS (2003) Drought and aquatic ecosystems: an introduction. Freshw Biol 48(7):1141–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Humphries P, Winemiller KO (2009) Historical impacts on river fauna, shifting baselines, and challenges for restoration. Bioscience 59(8):673–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Humphries P, Brown P, Douglas J, Pickworth A, Strongman R, Hall K et al (2008) Flow-related patterns in abundance and composition of the fish fauna of a degraded Australian lowland river. Freshw Biol 53(4):789–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hurd LE, Sousa RG, Siqueira-Souza FK, Cooper GJ, Kahn JR, Freitas CE (2016) Amazon floodplain fish communities: habitat connectivity and conservation in a rapidly deteriorating environment. Biol Conserv 195:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ingram BL, Malamud-Roam F (2013) The west without water—what past floods, droughts, and other climatic clues tell us about tomorrow. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 256Google Scholar
  97. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 996Google Scholar
  98. Jackson DA, Peres-Neto PR, Olden JD (2001) What controls who is where in freshwater fish communities the roles of biotic, abiotic, and spatial factors. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58(1):157–170Google Scholar
  99. James MC (1934) Effect of 1934 drought on fish life. Trans Am Fish Soc 64:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jarić I, Lennox RJ, Kalinkat G, Cvijanovic G, Radinger J (in press) Susceptibility of European freshwater fish to climate change: species profiling based on life-history and environmental characteristics. Global Change Biol 00:00-00Google Scholar
  101. Jeffrey JD, Hasler CT, Chapman JM, Cooke SJ, Suski CD (2015) Linking landscape-scale disturbances to stress and condition of fish: implications for restoration and conservation. Integr Comp Biol 55(4):618–630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Jennings S (2005) Indicators to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries. Fish Fish 6(3):212–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Johnson WC, Millett BV, Gilmanov T, Voldseth RA, Guntenspergen GR, Naugle DE (2005) Vulnerability of northern prairie wetlands to climate change. Bioscience 55(10):863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jowett IG, Richardson J, Bonnett ML (2005) Relationship between flow regime and fish abundances in a gravel-bed river, New Zealand. J Fish Biol 66(5):1419–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Junk WJ, Bayley PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 106(1):110–127Google Scholar
  106. Kalinin AL, Rantin FT, Glass ML (1993) Dependence on body size of respiratory function in Hoplias malabaricus (Teleostei, Erythrinidae) during graded hypoxia. Fish Physiol Biochem 12(1):47–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kanno Y, Vokoun JC (2010) Evaluating effects of water withdrawals and impoundments on fish assemblages in southern New England streams, USA. Fish Manag Ecol 17(3):272–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kelley CP, Mohtadi S, Cane MA, Seager R, Kushnir Y (2015) Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought. Proc Nat Acad Sci 112(11):3241–3246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kelsch SW (1994) Lotic fish-community structure following transition from severe drought to high discharge. J Freshw Ecol 9:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kiernan JD, Moyle PB (2012) Flows, droughts, and aliens: factors affecting the fish assemblage in a Sierra Nevada, California, stream. Ecol Appl 22:1146–1161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kim BM, Son SW, Min SK, Jeong JH, Kim SJ, Zhang X et al (2014) Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss. Nat Commun 5:5646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. King AJ, Tankin Z, Lieshcke J (2012) Short-term effects of a prolonged blackwater event on aquatic fauna in the Murray River, Australia: considerations for future events. Mar Freshw Res 63(7):576–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Klemetsen A, Amundsen PA, Dempson JB, Jonsson B, Jonsson N, O’Connell MF et al (2003) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): a review of aspects of their life histories. Ecol Freshw Fish 12(1):1–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Knowles N, Dettinger MD, Cayan DR (2006) Trends in snowfall versus rainfall in the western United States. J Clim 19:4545–4559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW, Doll P, Jimenez B, Miller K et al (2008) The implications of projected climate change for freshwater resources and their management. Hydrol Sci J 53:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lake PS (2003) Ecological effects of perturbation by drought in flowing waters. Freshw Biol 48(7):1161–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lake PS (2011) Drought and aquatic ecosystems: effects and responses. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lake PS, Bond NR (2007) Australian futures: freshwater ecosystems and human water usage. Futures 39:288–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Langerwisch F, Rost S, Gerten D, Poulter B, Rammig A, Cramer W (2013) Potential effects of climate change on inundation patterns in the Amazon Basin. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 17(6):2247–2262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Larimore RW, Childers WF, Heckrotte C (1959) Destruction and re-establishment of stream fish and invertebrates affected by drought. Trans Am Fish Soc 88(4):261–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. LeCompte EL (1930) Effect of drought on wildlife. Trans Am Fish Soc 60:251–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lefevre S, McKenzie DJ, Nilsson GE (2017) Models projecting the fate of fish populations under climate change need to be based on valid physiological mechanisms. Global Change Biol 23:3449–3459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lennox RJ, Brownscombe JW, Cooke SJ, Danylchuk AJ (2018a) Post-release behaviour and survival of recreationally-angled arapaima (Arapaima cf. arapaima) assessed with accelerometer biologgers. Fish Res 00:00–00Google Scholar
  124. Lennox RJ, Suski CD, Cooke SJ (2018b) A macrophysiology approach to watershed science and management. Sci Tot Environ 626:434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Light T, Moyle PB (2015) Assembly rules and novel assemblages in aquatic ecosystems. In: Canning-Clode J (ed) Biological invasions in changing ecosystems: vectors, ecological impacts, management, and predictions. De Gruyter Open, Warsaw/Berlin, pp 432–457Google Scholar
  126. Limburg KE, Landergren P, Westin L, Elfman M, Kristiansson P (2001) Flexible modes of anadromy in Baltic sea trout: making the most of marginal spawning streams. J Fish Biol 59(3):682–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Love JW, Taylor CM, Warren MP Jr (2008) Effects of summer drought on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage properties in upland Ouachita Mountain streams, USA. Am Midl Nat 160(2):265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lucas MC, Baras E (2001) Migration of freshwater fishes. Blackwell Science, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lusardi RA, BOgan MT, Moyle PB, Dahlgren RA (2016) Environment shapes invertebrate assemblage structure differences between volcanic spring-fed and runoff rivers in northern California. Freshw Sci 35(3):1010–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lynch AJ, Cooke SJ, Deines AM, Bower SD, Bunnell DB, Cowx IG, Nguyen VM et al (2016) The social, economic, and environmental importance of inland fish and fisheries. Environ Rev 24(2):115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Magalhaes MF, Beja P, Schlosser LJ, Collares-Pereira MJ (2007) Effects of multi-year droughts on fish assemblages of seasonally drying Mediterranean streams. Freshw Biol 52(8):1494–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Magoulick DD, Kozba RM (2003) The role of refugia for fishes during drought: a review and synthesis. Freshw Biol 48:1186–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Magurran AE, Henderson PA (2010) Temporal turnover and the maintenance of diversity in ecological assemblages. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:3611–3620CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Marcogliese DJ (2001) Implications of climate change for parasitism of animals in the aquatic environment. Can J Zool 79(8):1331–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Marshall JC, Menke N, Crook DA, Lobegeiger JS, Balcombe SR, Huey JA et al (2016) Go with the flow: the movement behaviour of fish from isolated waterhole refugia during connecting flow events in an intermittent dryland river. Freshw Biol 61:1242–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Marsh-Matthews E, Matthews WJ (2010) Proximate and residual effects of exposure to simulated drought on prairie stream fishes. In: Gido KB, Jackson DA (eds) Community ecology of stream fishes. American fisheries society symposium, vol 73. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 461–486Google Scholar
  137. Matthews WJ, Marsh-Matthews E (2003) Effects of drought on fish across axes of space, time and ecological complexity. Freshw Biol 48(7):1232–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Matthews WJ, Marsh-Matthews E, Cashner RC, Gelwick F (2013) Disturbance and trajectory of change in a stream fish community over four decades. Oecologia 173(3):955–969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. McCargo JW (2004) Influence of drought on seasonal fish assemblages and habitat in the Lower Flint River basin, Georgia (Doctoral dissertation, MS Thesis, University of Georgia, Athens)Google Scholar
  140. McCargo JW, Peterson JT (2010) An evaluation of the influence of seasonal base flow and geomorphic stream characteristics on Coastal Plain stream fish assemblages. Trans Am Fish Soc 139(1):29–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. McGowan S, Leavitt PR, Hall RI (2005) A whole-lake experiment to determine the effects of winter droughts on shallow lakes. Ecosystems 8(6):694–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. McMahon TA, Finlayson BL (2003) Droughts and anti-droughts: the low-flow hydrology of Australian rivers. Freshw Biol 48:1147–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Medeiros ES, Maltchik L (1999) The effects of hydrological disturbance on the intensity of infestation of Lernaea cyprinacea in an intermittent stream fish community. J Arid Environ 43(3):351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Miller MJ (2016) Life histories of catadromous fishes. In: Morais P, Daverat F (eds) An introduction to fish migration. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  145. Mims MC, Olden JD (2012) Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes. Ecology 93(1):35–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Mishra AK, Singh VP (2010) A review of drought concepts. J Hydrol 391(1–2):202–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Mishra AK, Singh VP (2011) Drought modeling–A review. J Hydrol 403(1–2):157–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Mitro MG (2016) Brook trout, brown trout, and ectoparasitic copepods Salmincola edwardsii: species interactions as a proximate cause of brook trout loss under changing environmental conditions. Trans Am Fish Soc 145(6):1223–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mol JH, Resida D, Ramlal JS, Becker CR (2000) Effects of El Nino-related drought on freshwater and brackish-water fishes in Suriname, South America. Environ Biol Fish 59(4):429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Morrongiello JR, Beatty SJ, Bennet JC, Crook DA, Ikedife DN, Kennard MJ et al (2011) Climate change and its implications for Australia’s freshwater fish. Mar Freshw Res 62(9):1082–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mount J, Gray B et al (2018) Managing drought in a changing climate: Four essential reforms. Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco. 30 pp.
  152. Mount J, Gray B, Chappelle C, Gartrell G, Grantham T, Moyle P et al (2017) Managing California’s freshwater ecosystems: lessons from the 2012–16 drought. Public Policy Institute of California 52 pp.
  153. Moyle PB (2002) Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  154. Moyle PB, Vondracek B, Grossman GD (1983) Responses of fish populations in the North Fork of the Feather River, California, to treatments with fish toxicants. North Am J Fish Manag 3(1):48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Moyle PB, Baxter RD, Sommer T, Foin TC, Matern SA (2004) Biology and population dynamics of Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) in the San Francisco Estuary: a review. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science [online serial] 2(2):1–47.
  156. Moyle PB, Crain PK, Whitener K (2007) Patterns in the use of a restored California floodplain by native and alien fishes. San Franc Estuary Watershed Sci 5(3):1–27Google Scholar
  157. Moyle PB, Kiernan JD, Crain PK, Quiñones RM (2013) Climate change vulnerability of native and alien freshwater fishes of California: a systematic assessment approach. PLoS ONE 8(5):e63883CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Moyle P, Lusardi R, Samuel P, Katz J (2017) State of the salmonids: Status of California’s emblematic fishes 2017. Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, Davis and California Trout, San Francisco, CA. 579 pp.
  159. Nagrodski A, Raby GD, Hasler CT, Taylor MK, Cooke SJ (2012) Fish stranding in freshwater systems: sources, consequences, and mitigation. J Environ Manag 103:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Nguyen VM, Lynch AJ, Young N, Cowx IG, Beard TD Jr, Taylor WW, Cooke SJ (2016) To manage inland fisheries is to manage at the social-ecological watershed scale. J Environ Manag 181:312–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. O’Connor JE, Duda JJ, Grant GE (2015) 1000 dams down and counting. Science 348(6234):496–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ogston G, Beatty SJ, Morgan DL, Pusey BJ, Lymbery AJ (2016) Living on burrowed time: aestivating fishes in south-western Australia face extinction due to climate change. Biol Conserv 195:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Olden JD, Kennard MJ (2010) Intercontinental comparison of fish life history strategies along a gradient of hydrologic variability. Am Fish Soc Symp 73:83–107Google Scholar
  164. Opperman JJ, Moyle PB, Larsen EW, Florsheim JL, Manfree AD (2017) Floodplains: processes, ecosystems, and services in temperate regions. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  165. Ormerod SJ (2009) Climate change, river conservation and the adaptation challenge. Aquat Conserv 19(6):609–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Paller MH (1997) Recovery of a reservoir fish community from drawdown related impacts. N Am J Fish Manag 17(3):726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Parker RH (1955) Changes in the invertebrate fauna, apparently attributable to salinity changes, in the bays of central Texas. J Paleontol 193–211:2100–2166Google Scholar
  168. Parry ES, Gregory SD, Laurisden RB, Griffiths SW (2018) The effects of flow on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) redd distribution in a UK chalk stream between 1980 and 2015. Ecol Freshw Fish 27(1):128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Perkin JS, Gido KB, Costigan KH, Daniels MD, Johnson ER (2015) Fragmentation and drying ratchet down Great Plains stream fish diversity. Aquat Conserv 25(5):639–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Perry GL, Bond NR (2009) Spatially explicit modeling of habitat dynamics and fish population persistence in an intermittent lowland stream. Ecol Appl 19(3):731–746CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Peterson JT, Bayley PB (1993) Colonization rates of fishes in experimentally defaunated warmwater streams. Trans Am Fish Soc 122(2):199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Pickering AD, Pottinger TG (1989) Stress responses and disease resistance in salmonid fish: effects of chronic elevation of plasma cortisol. Fish Physiol Biochem 7(1–6):253–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Pinaya WHD, Lobon-Cervia FJ, Pita P, de Souza RB, Freire J, Isaac FV (2016) Multispecies fisheries in the lower Amazon River and its relationship with the regional and global climate variability. PLoS ONE 11:e0157050CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Poff NL, Allan JD (1995) Functional organization of stream fish assemblages in relation to hydrological variability. Ecology 76(2):606–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Poff NL, Allan JD, Palmer MA, Hart DD, Richter BD, Arthington AH, Rogers KH et al (2003) River flows and water wars: emerging science for environmental decision making. Front Ecol Environ 1(6):298–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Polis GA, Anderson WB, Holt RD (1997) Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: the dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs. Ann Rev Ecol Sys 28:289–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Porter TR (1997) Protocols used in Newfoundland for determining if a river will be closed for salmon angling. In: Chaput GJ (ed) Proceedings of a workshop to review conservation principles for Atlantic Salmon in Eastern Canada. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canadian Stock Assessment Proceedings Series, vol 97, pp 21–23Google Scholar
  178. Postel S (1996) Dividing the waters: food security, ecosystem health, and the new politics of scarcity. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  179. Poulakis GR, Stevens PW, Timmers AA, Wiley TR, Simpfendorfer CA (2011) Abiotic affinities and spatiotemporal distribution of the endangered smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, in a south-western Florida nursery. Mar Freshw Res 62(10):1165–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Power G, Brown RS, Imhof JG (1999) Groundwater and fish—insights from northern North America. Hydrol Proc 13(3):401–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Power ME, Parker MS, Dietrich WE (2008) Seasonal reassembly of a river food web: floods, droughts, and impacts of fish. Ecol Monogr 78(2):263–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Prowse TD, Beltaos S (2002) Climatic control of river-ice hydrology: a review. Hydrol Process 16(4):805–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Pusey BJ (1989) Aestivation in the teleost fish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Mees). Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 92(1):137–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Radinger J, Hölker F, Horký P, Slavík O, Wolter C (2018) Improved river continuity facilitates fishes’ abilities to track future environmental changes. J Environ Manag 208:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Ramirez A, Gutiérrez-Fonseca PE, Kelly SP, Engman AC, Wagner K, Rosas KG, Rodríguez N (2018) Drought facilitates species invasions in urban streams: results from a long-term study of tropical island fish assemblage structure. Front Ecol Evol 6:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Richter BD, Warner AT, Meyer JL, Lutz K (2006) A collaborative and adaptive process for developing environmental flow recommendations. Riv Res Appl 22(3):297–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Robins J, Mayer D, Staunton-Smith J, Halliday I, Sawynok B, Sellin M (2006) Variable growth rates of the tropical estuarine fish barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) under different freshwater flow conditions. J Fish Biol 69(2):379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Rogers SL, Greenway B (2005) A UK perspective on the development of marine ecosystem indicators. Mar Poll Bull 50(1):9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Röpke CP, Amadio S, Zuanon J, Ferreira EJ, De Dues CP, Pires TH, Winemiller KO (2017) Simultaneous abrupt shifts in hydrology and fish assemblage structure in a floodplain lake in the central Amazon. Sci Rep 7:40170CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Ross ST (2013) Ecology of North American Fishes. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  191. Ross T, Lott N (2003) A climatology of 1980–2003 extreme weather and climate events. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service, National Climatic Data Center, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  192. Ross ST, Matthews WJ, Echelle AA (1985) Persistence of stream fish assemblages: effects of environmental change. Am Midl Nat 126(1):24–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Sammons SM, Maceina MJ (2009) Effects of river flows on growth of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus (Centrarchidae) in Georgia rivers. J Fish Biol 74(7):1580–1593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Schindler DW, Curtis PJ, Parker BR, Stainton MP (1996) Consequences of climate warming and lake acidification for UV-B penetration in North American boreal lakes. Nature 379(6567):705–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Schindler DE, Hilborn R, Chasco B, Boatright CB, Quinn TP, Rogers LA, Webster MS (2010) Population diversity and the portfolio effect in an exploited species. Nature 465:609–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Scrimgeour GJ, Prowse TD, Culp JM, Chambers PA (1994) Ecological effects of river ice break-up: a review and perspective. Freshw Biol 32(2):261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Seastedt TR, Hobbs RJ, Suding KN (2008) Management of novel ecosystems: are novel approaches required? Front Ecol Environ 6(10):547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Sheffield J, Wood EF (2008) Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations. Clim Dyn 31(1):79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Smale MA, Rabeni CF (1995) Influences of hypoxia and hyperthermia on fish species composition in headwater streams. Trans Am Fish Soc 124:711–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Smith JJ (1982) Fishes of the Pajaro River Basin. In: Moyle PB (ed) Distribution and ecology of stream fishes other Sacramento-San Joaquin Drainage system California. University of California Publications in Zoology, vol 115, pp 3–171Google Scholar
  201. Smith LC, Turcotte DL, Isacks BL (1998) Stream flow characterization and feature detection using a discrete wavelet transform. Hydrol Process 12(2):233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Sotiropoulos JC, Nislow KH, Ross MR (2006) Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, microhabitat selection and diet under low summer stream flows. Fish Manag Ecol 13(3):149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Stanley CE, Tayloer JM, King RS (2012) Coupling fish community structure with instream flow and habitat connectivity between two hydrologically extreme years. Trans Am Fish Soc 141(4):1000–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Staunton-Smith J, Robins JB, Mayer DG, Sellin MJ, Halliday IA (2004) Does the quantity and timing of fresh water flowing into a dry tropical estuary affect year-class strength of barramundi (Lates calcarifer)? Mar Freshw Res 55(8):787–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Steichen JL, Quigg A (2018) Fish species as indicators of freshwater inflow within a subtropical estuary in the Gulf of Mexico. Ecol Indic 85:180–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Sullivan KM (1986) Physiology of feeding and starvation in overwintering freshwater fishes. In: Noaks DLG (ed) Developments in the environmental biology of fishes. Springer, New York, pp 259–268Google Scholar
  207. Swales S, Storey AW, Roderick ID, Figa BS (1999) Fishes of floodplain habitats of the Fly River system, Papua New Guinea, and changes associated with El Nino droughts and algal blooms. Environ Biol Fish 54(4):389–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Thorp JH, Delong MD (1994) The riverine productivity model: an heuristic view of carbon sources and organic processing in large river ecosystems. Oikos 70(2):305–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Tramer E (1977) Catastrophic mortality of stream fishes trapped in shrinking pools. Am Midl Nat 97:469–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Trenberth KE, Dai A, van der Sshrier G, Jones PD, Barichivich J, Briffa KR, Sheffield J (2014) Global warming and changes in drought. Nat Clim Change 4(1):17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Sedell JR, Cushing CE (1980) The river continuum concept. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37(1):130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Vivier L, Cyrus DP, Jerling HL (2010) Fish community structure of the St Lucia estuarine system under prolonged drought conditions and its potential for recovery after mouth breaching. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 86(4):568–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Vogrinc PN, Durso AM, Winne CT, Willson JD (2018) Landscape-scale effects of supra-seasonal drought on semi-aquatic snake assemblages. Wetlands 38:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, Prusevich A, Green P et al (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467(7315):555–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Walters AW, Post DM (2008) An experimental disturbance alters fish size structure but not food chain length in streams. Ecology 89(12):3261–3267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Ward TD, Algera DA, Gallagher AJ, Hawkins E, Horodysky A, Jørgensen C et al (2016) Understanding the individual to implement the ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Conserv Physiol 4(1):cow005CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  217. Wedderburn SD, Hammer MP, Bice CM (2012) Shifts in small-bodied fish assemblages resulting from drought-induced water level recession in terminating lakes of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Hydrobiologia 691(1):35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wedderburn SD, Barnes TC, Hillyard KA (2014) Shifts in fish assemblages indicate failed recovery of threatened species following prolonged drought in terminating lakes of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Hydrobiologia 730(1):179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Wedderburn SD, Bice CM, Barnes TC (2015) Prey selection and diet overlap of native golden perch and alien redfin perch under contrasting hydrological conditions. Aust J Zool 62(5):374–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Wedemeyer GA (1976) Physiological response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to handling and crowding stress in intensive fish culture. J Fish Res Board Can 33(12):2699–2702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Welcomme RL, Cowx IG, Coates B, Béné C, Funge-Smith S, Halls A et al (2010) Inland capture fisheries. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1554):2881–2896CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. White SM, Rahel FJ (2008) Complementation of habitats for Bonneville cutthroat trout in watersheds influenced by beavers, livestock, and drought. Trans Am Fish Soc 137(3):881–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. White RS, McHugh PA, McIntosh AR (2016) Drought-survival is a threshold function of habitat size and population density in a fish metapopulation. Global Change Biol 22:3341–3348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Whiterod NS, Hammer MP, Vilizzi L (2015) Spatial and temporal variability in fish community structure in Mediterranean climate temporary streams. Fundam Appl Limnol 187(2):135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Whitfield AK (1990) Life-history styles of fishes in South African estuaries. Environ Biol Fish 28(1–4):295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Whitney JE, Al-Chokhachy R, Bunnell DB, Caldwell CA, Cooke SJ, Eliason EJ, Rogers R, Lynch AJ, Paukert CP (2016a) Physiological basis of climate change impacts on North American inland fishes. Fisheries 41(7):332–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Whitney JE, Gido KB, Martin EC, Hase KJ (2016b) The first to arrive and the last to leave: colonisation and extinction dynamics of common and rare fishes in intermittent prairie streams. Freshw Biol 61(8):1321–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Wilhite DA, Svoboda MD (2000) Drought early warning systems in the context of drought preparedness and mitigation. In: Early warning systems for drought preparedness and drought management. World Meteorological Organization, Lisboa, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  229. Xenopoulos MA, Lodge DM (2006) Going with the flow: using species-discharge relationships to forecast losses in fish biodiversity. Ecology 87(8):1907–1914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Xenopoulos MA, Lodge DM, Alcamo J, Märker M, Schulze K, van Vurren DP (2005) Scenarios of freshwater fish extinctions from climate change and water withdrawal. Global Change Biol 11(10):1557–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Zampatti BP, Bice CM, Jennings PR (2010) Temporal variability in fish assemblage structure and recruitment in a freshwater-deprived estuary: the Coorong, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 61(11):1298–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Zaret TM, Rand AS (1971) Competition in tropical stream fishes: support for the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology 52(2):336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fish Ecology and Conservation Physiology Laboratory, Department of BiologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Research Institute for the Environment and LivelihoodsCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia
  3. 3.Center for Watershed SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations