Advertisement

Effect of tillage and straw return on carbon footprints, soil organic carbon fractions and soil microbial community in different textured soils under rice–wheat rotation: a review

  • S. S. DhaliwalEmail author
  • R. K. Naresh
  • R. K. Gupta
  • A. S. Panwar
  • N. C. Mahajan
  • Ravinder Singh
  • Agniva Mandal
Review paper

Abstract

Measuring the influence of long-term agricultural tillage practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) is of great importance to farmers and policymakers. Different management practices affected SOC mainly at the soil surface level. The different fractions of SOC viz. total SOC, particulate organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, and potentially mineralizable carbon, were reported to be strongly correlated over a diversity of soils and management systems. Frequent tillage deteriorates soil structure and weakens soil aggregates, causing them to be susceptible to decay. The mixing of residues/surface retention into the soil increases SOM mineralization due to greater exposure to microbial decomposers and optimal moisture and temperature. Increased efficiency of N fertilizers use can result in reduced carbon footprints of field crops, because the contribution of N fertilizers is 36–52% of total emissions while increased soil C sequestration reduces the carbon footprint, because the input carbon as CO2 from atmospheric is converted into the plant biomass and eventually deposited to the soil. Decreasing soil tillage integrated with crop residues retention can increases SOC and decreases carbon footprint, and the mixing of key agricultural practices could increase the crop yields, reduce the emissions and carbon footprint respectively.

Keywords

Tillage Soil quality Straw return Microbial community Carbon footprint Soil aggregates 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Acosta-Martínez V, Dowd SE, Bell CW, Lascano R, Booker JD, Zobeck TM, Upchurch DR (2010) Microbial community composition as affected by dryland cropping systems and tillage in a semiarid sandy soil. Diversity 2:910–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Mansour F, Jejcic V (2014) Carbon footprint of conventional and organic crops production on family farms in Slovenia. In: 1st South East European conference on sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems (SEE-SDEWES), Ohrid, Paper no.66, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  3. Causarano HJ, Franzluebbers AJ, Shaw JN, Reeves DW, Raper RL, Wood C (2008) Soil organic carbon fractions and aggregation in the Southern Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72(1):221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen H, Marhan S, Billen N, Stahr K (2009) Soil organic-carbon and total nitrogen stocks as affected by different land uses in Baden-Württemberg (southwest Germany). J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172(1):32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen X, Li Z, Liu M, Jiang C, Che Y (2015) Microbial community and functional diversity associated with different aggregate fractions of a paddy soil fertilized with organic manure and/or NPK fertilizer for 20 years. J Soil Sediment 15(2):292–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen S, Xu C, Yan J, Zhang X, Zhang X, Wang D (2016) The influence of the type of crop residue on soil organic carbon fractions: an 11-year field study of rice-based cropping systems in southeast China. Agri Ecosyst Environ 223:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Desrochers J (2017) Agronomic management practice effects on particulate organic matter and infiltration in a wheat-soybean, double-crop system in Eastern Arkansas. Theses and Dissertations, University of Arkansas, FayettevilleGoogle Scholar
  8. Devêvre OC, Horwáth WR (2000) Decomposition of rice straw and microbial carbon use efficiency under different soil temperatures and moistures. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1773–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dhaliwal SS (2008) Profile distribution of chemical, physical and biological indicators in different land use systems under Takarala watershed in submontaneous tract of Punjab. J Plant Sci Res 24:141–150Google Scholar
  10. Dhaliwal SS, Sharma BD, Singh B, Khera KL (2008) Profile distribution of chemical, physical and microbial indicators in four land use systems of sadh di khad watershed in submontaneous tract of Punjab. Asian J Soil Sci 3:316–322Google Scholar
  11. Dhaliwal SS, Ram H, Walia SS, Walia MK, Kumar B, Dhaliwal MK (2019) Long-term influence of nutrient management on carbon and nutrients in Typic-ustochrept soils. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2019.1659308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ding X, Han X (2014) Effects of long-term fertilization on contents and distribution of microbial residues within aggregate structures of a clay soil. Biol Fert Soils 50:549–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ding LL, Cheng H, Liu ZF, Ren WW (2013) Experimental warming on the rice-wheat rotation agro-ecosystem. Plant Sci J 31:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ekblad A, Wallander H, Godbold DL, Cruz C, Johnson D, Baldrian P, Björk RG, Epron D, Kieliszewska-Rokicka B, Kjøller R, Kraigher H, Matzner E, Neumann J, Plassard C (2013) The production and turnover of extra-matrical mycelium of ecto-mycorrhizal fungi in forest soils: role in carbon cycling. Plant Soil 366:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elzobair KA, Stromberger ME, Ippolito JA, Lentz RD (2016) Contrasting effects of biochar verse manure on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in an Aridisol. Chemosphere 142:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2017) FAOSTAT agricultural data. http://faostat.fao.org/. Accessed 1 Sept 1 2017
  17. Figuerola EL, Guerrero ED, Rosa SM, Simonetti L, Duval ME, Galantini JA, Bedano JC, Wall LG, Erijman L (2012) Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production. PLoS ONE 7:e51075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Franzluebbers A (2005) Soil organic carbon sequestration and agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the southeastern USA. Soil Tillage Res 83(1):120–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gan Y, Liang C, Chai Q, Lemke RL, Campbell CA, Zentner RP (2014) Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production. Nat Commun 5:5012.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gong W, Yan X, Wang J, Hu T, Gong Y (2009) Long-term manure and fertilizer effects on soil organic matter fractions and microbes under a wheat–maize cropping system in northern China. Geoderma 149:318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Govaerts B, Fuentes M, Mezzalama M, Nicol JM, Deckers J, Etchevers JD, Sandoval BF, Sayre KD (2007) Infiltration, soil moisture, root rot and nematode populations after 12 years of different tillage, residue and crop rotation managements. Soil Tillage Res 94:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grosbellet C, Vidal-Beaudet L, Caubel V, Chapentier S (2011) Improvement of soil structure formation by degradation of coarse organic matter. Geoderma 162:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guo JH, Liu XJ, Zhang Y, Shen JL, Han WX, Zhang WF, Christie P, Goulding KWT, Vitousek PM, Zhang FS (2010) Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands. Science 327:1008–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guo LJ, Zhang ZS, Wang DD, Li CF, Cao CG (2015) Effects of short-term conservation management practices on soil organic carbon fractions and microbial community composition under a rice-wheat rotation system. Biol Fertil Soils 51:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guo LJ, Lin S, Liu TQ, Cao CG, Li CF (2016) Effects of conservation tillage on topsoil microbial metabolic characteristics and organic carbon within aggregates under a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in central China. PloS One 11:e0146145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guo Z, Zhang Z, Zhou H, Wang D, Peng X (2019) The effect of 34-year continuous fertilization on the SOC physical fractions and its chemical composition in a Vertisol. Sci Rep 9(1):2505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Herrero M, Henderson B, Havlík P, Thornton PK, Conant RT, Smith P, Stehfest E (2016) Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector. Nat Clim Change 6:452–461.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2925 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Higgins JA, Andrei V, Kurbatov AV, Spaulding NE, Brook E, Introne DS, Chimiak LM, Yan Y, Mayewski PA, Bender ML (2015) Atmospheric composition 1 million years ago from blue ice in the Allan Hills, Antarctica. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(22):6887–6891.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.142023211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ji B, Hu H, Zhao Y, Mu X, Liu K, Li C (2014) Effects of deep tillage and straw returning on soil microorganism and enzyme activities. Sci World J 2014:451493.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/451493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson JMF, Martinez VA, Cambardella CA, Barbour NW (2013) Crop and soil responses to using corn stover as a bio-energy feedstock: observations from the northern US corn belt. Agriculture 3(1):72–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaur K, Kapoor KK, Gupta AP (2005) Impact of organic manures with and without mineral fertilizers on soil chemical and biological properties under tropical conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kumari M, Chakrabort D, Gathala MK, Pathak H, Dwivedi BS, Tomar RK, Garg RN, Singh R, Ladha JK (2011) Soil aggregation and associated organic carbon fractions as affected by tillage in a rice-wheat rotation in North India. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:560–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Larkin RP (2015) Soil health paradigms and implications for disease management. Ann Rev Phytopathol 53:199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li J, Wu X, Gebremikael MT, Wu H, Cai D, Wang B (2018) Response of soil organic carbon fractions, microbial community composition and carbon mineralization to high-input fertilizer practices under an intensive agricultural system. PLoS ONE 13(4):e0195144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu C, Cutforth H, Chai Q, Gan Y (2016a) Farming tactics to reduce the carbon footprint of crop cultivation in semiarid areas: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 36:69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-016-0404-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu S, Zhang Y, Zong Y, Hu Z, Wu S, Zhou J, Jin Y, Zou J (2016b) Response of soil carbon dioxide fluxes, soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon to biochar amendment: a meta-analysis. GCB Bioenergy 8:392–406.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mathew RP, Feng Y, Githinji L, Ankumah R, Balkcom KS (2012) Impact of no-tillage and conventional tillage on soil microbial communities. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2012:548620.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/548620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mau RL, Liu CM, Aziz M, Schwartz E, Dijkstra P, Marks JC, Price LB, Keim P, Hungate BA (2015) Linking soil bacterial bio-diversity and soil carbon stability. ISME J 9:1477–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moore TR, de Souza W, Koprivnjak J (1992) Controls on the sorption of dissolved organic carbon by soils. Soil Sci 154:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naresh RK, Timsina J, Bhaskar S, Gupta RK, Singh AK, Dhaliwal SS, Rathore RS, Kumar V, Singh P, Singh SP, Tyagi S, Kumar S, Mahajan NC (2017) Effects of tillage, residue and nutrient management on soil organic carbon dynamics and its fractions, soil aggregate stability and soil carbon sequestration: a review. EC Nutr 2:53–80Google Scholar
  41. Powlson DS, Stirling CM, Thierfelder C, White RP, Jat ML (2016) Does conservation agriculture deliver climate change mitigation through soil carbon sequestration in tropical agro-ecosystems? Agric Ecosyst Environ 220:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sainju UM, Lenssen AW, Caesar T, Jabro JD, Lartey RT, Evans RG, Allen BL (2012) Tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice effects on dry-land soil carbon fractions. Open J Soil Sci 2:242–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sapkota TB, Jat RK, Singh RG, Jat ML, Stirling CM, Jat MK, Bijarniya D, Kumar M, Yadvinder-Singh Saharawat YS, Gupta RK (2017) Soil organic carbon changes after seven years of conservation agriculture in a rice-wheat system of the eastern Indo-Gangetic plains. Soil Use Manage 33:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh B (2018) Are nitrogen fertilizers deleterious to soil health? Agronomy 8(4):48.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8040048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Six J, Elliott ET, Paustian K (1998) Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63(5):1350–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sun R, Zhang XX, Guo X, Wang D, Chu H (2015) Bacterial diversity in soils subjected to long-term chemical fertilization can be more stably maintained with the addition of livestock manure than wheat straw. Soil Biol Biochem 88:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tan C, Cao X, Yuan S, Wang W, Feng Y, Qiao B (2015) Effects of long-term conservation tillage on soil nutrients in sloping fields in regions characterized by water and wind erosion. Sci Rep 5:17592.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep17592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Varvel GE, Wilhelm WW (2010) Long-term soil organic carbon as affected by tillage and cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:915–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang Y, Hu N, Ge T, Kuzyakov Y, Wang ZL, Li Z, Tang Z, Chen Y, Wu C, Lou Y (2017) Soil aggregation regulates distributions of carbon, microbial community and enzyme activities after 23-year manure amendment. Appl Soil Ecol 11:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Witt C, Cassman KG, Olk DC, Biker U, Liboon SP, Samson MI, Ottow JCG (2000) Crop rotation and residue management effects on carbon sequestration, nitrogen cycling and productivity of irrigated rice systems. Plant Soil 225:263–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xu Y, Tang H, Xiao X, Li W, Li C, Sun G, Cheng K (2018) Effects of long-term fertilization management practices on soil microbial carbon and microbial biomass in paddy soil at various stages of rice growth. Rev Bras Cienc Solo 42:e0170111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yue HW, Wang M, Wang S, Gilbert JA, Sun X, Wu L, Lin Q, Hu Y, Li X, He Z, Zhou J, Yang Y (2015) The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands. Int Soc Microb Ecol 9:2012–2020Google Scholar
  53. Zhang S, Li Q, Lü Y, Zhang X, Liang W (2013) Contributions of soil biota to C sequestration varied with aggregate fractions under different tillage systems. Soil Biol Biochem 62:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang H, Ding W, He X, Yu H, Fan J, Liu D (2014) Influence of 20-year organic and inorganic fertilization on organic carbon accumulation and microbial community structure of aggregates in an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil. PLoS ONE 9:e92733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhao H, Shar AG, Li S, Chen Y, Shi J, Zhang X, Tian X (2018) Effect of straw return mode on soil aggregation and aggregate carbon content in an annual maize-wheat double cropping system. Soil Tillage Res 175:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhu L, Hu N, Yang MF, Zhan X, Zhang Z (2014) Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system. PloS One 9:e88900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhu L, Hu N, Zhang Z, Xu J, Tao B, Meng Y (2015) Short-term responses of soil organic carbon and carbon pool management index to different annual straw return rates in a rice-wheat cropping system. CATENA 135:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhu Y, Waqas MA, Li Y, Zou X, Jiang D, Wilkes A, Qin X, Gao Q, Wan Y, Hasbagan G (2018) Large-scale farming operations are win-win for grain production, soil carbon storage and mitigation of greenhouse gases. J Clean Prod 172:2143–2152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zou H, Ye X, Li J, Lu J, Fan Q, Yu N, Zhang Y, Dang X, Zhang Y (2016) Effects of straw return in deep soils with urea addition on the soil organic carbon fractions in a semi-arid temperate cornfield. PLoS One 11(4):e0153214.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil SciencePunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of AgronomySardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and TechnologyMeerutIndia
  3. 3.Borlaug Institute for South Asia (BISA)New DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Indian Institute of Farming System ResearchModipuram, MeerutIndia
  5. 5.Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  6. 6.Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil ScienceBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaMohanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations