Advertisement

Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 453–471 | Cite as

Pre-treatments of MSWI fly-ashes: a comprehensive review to determine optimal conditions for their reuse and/or environmentally sustainable disposal

  • Alberto FerraroEmail author
  • Ilenia Farina
  • Marco Race
  • Francesco Colangelo
  • Raffaele Cioffi
  • Massimiliano Fabbricino
Review Paper
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of the experimental studies focusing on municipal solid waste incineration fly-ash (FA) treatments that are required before the application of advanced processes aimed at their final reuse or safe disposal. The investigated pre-treatments are divided into three categories: (1) water washing/chemical leaching; (2) electrodialysis; and (3) thermal separation. Analysed aspects include: (1) process efficiency; (2) effect on FA physical–chemical characteristics; and (3) process applicability as a function of secondary FA treatment steps which are generally required for final disposal or reuse of the remediated waste. Investigations related to these elements allows a determination of the efficacy and the operational convenience of a specific pre-treatment to achieve a proper FA remediation level. A comparison of studies in the literature provides a thorough source and a useful basis for correctly addressing future experimental activities and research efforts. The discussion of the results provides the basis for the development of a suitable methodology to optimize the environmentally sustainable reuse or safer disposal of treated FA.

Keywords

MSWI fly-ash Washing/leaching pre-treatment Electrodialytic remediation Thermal treatment Soluble salts removal Heavy metals recovery 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. Ferraro would like to thank the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) which provided financial support for 12 months post-doctoral grant in the framework of the research project entitled “Dipartimenti di Eccellenza”—CUP E65D18000820006.

References

  1. Bayuseno AP, Schmahl WW (2011) Characterization of MSWI fly ash through mineralogy and water extraction. Resour Conserv Recycl 55:524–534.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayuseno AP, Schmahl WW, Müllejans T (2009) Hydrothermal processing of MSWI Fly Ash-towards new stable minerals and fixation of heavy metals. J Hazard Mater 167:250–259.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertolini L, Carsana M, Cassago D et al (2004) MSWI ashes as mineral additions in concrete. Cem Concr Res 34:1899–1906.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bosshard PP, Bachofen R, Brandl H (1996) Metal leaching of fly ash from municipal waste incineration by Aspergillus niger. Environ Sci Technol 30:3066–3070.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es960151v CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunner PH, Rechberger H (2015) Waste to energy—key element for sustainable waste management. Waste Manag 37:3–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WASMAN.2014.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan CC, Kirk DW (1999) Behaviour of metals under the conditions of roasting MSW incinerator fly ash with chlorinating agents. J Hazard Mater 64:75–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(98)00227-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen W, Kirkelund GM, Jensen PE, Ottosen LM (2017) Comparison of different MSWI fly ash treatment processes on the thermal behavior of As, Cr, Pb and Zn in the ash. Waste Manag 68:240–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiang KY, Hu YH (2010) Water washing effects on metals emission reduction during municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash melting process. Waste Manag 30:831–838.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chou JD, Wey M-Y, Chang S-H (2009) Evaluation of the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd from MSWI fly ash during thermal treatment by sequential extraction procedure. J Hazard Mater 162:1000–1006.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colangelo F, Cioffi R, Montagnaro F, Santoro L (2012) Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material. Waste Manag 32:1179–1185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colangelo F, Messina F, Cioffi R (2015) Recycling of MSWI fly ash by means of cementitious double step cold bonding pelletization: technological assessment for the production of lightweight artificial aggregates. J Hazard Mater 299:181–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2015.06.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deepatana A, Tang JA, Valix M (2006) Comparative study of chelating ion exchange resins for metal recovery from bioleaching of nickel laterite ores. Miner Eng 19:1280–1289.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MINENG.2006.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferone C, Colangelo F, Messina F et al (2013) Recycling of pre-washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in the manufacturing of low temperature setting geopolymer materials. Materials (Basel) 6:3420–3437.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6083420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ferreira C, Ribeiro A, Ottosen L (2003) Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash. J Hazard Mater 96:201–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00201-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferreira C, Ribeiro AB, Ottosen LM (2004) Treatment of MSW fly ashes using the electrodialytic remediation technique. In: Popov V, Itoh H, Brebbia CA, Kungolos S (eds) Waste management and the environment II. WIT Press, Southampton, pp 65–75Google Scholar
  16. Ferreira C, Jensen P, Ottosen L, Ribeiro A (2005) Removal of selected heavy metals from MSW fly ash by the electrodialytic process. Eng Geol 77:339–347.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENGGEO.2004.07.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferreira CD, Jensen P, Ottosen L, Ribeiro A (2008) Preliminary treatment of MSW fly ash as a way of improving electrodialytic remediation. J Environ Sci Heal A Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43:837–843.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520801974319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hong K-J, Tokunaga S, Kajiuchi T (2000) Extraction of heavy metals from MSW incinerator fly ashes by chelating agents. J Hazard Mater 75:57–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(00)00171-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu Y, Zhang P, Chen D et al (2012) Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. J Hazard Mater 207–208:79–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.05.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu Y, Zhang P, Li J, Chen D (2015) Stabilization and separation of heavy metals in incineration fly ash during the hydrothermal treatment process. J Hazard Mater 299:149–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ishigaki T, Nakanishi A, Tateda M et al (2005) Bioleaching of metal from municipal waste incineration fly ash using a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Chemosphere 60:1087–1094.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2004.12.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jakob A, Stucki S, Kuhn P (1995) Evaporation of heavy metals during the heat treatment of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Environ Sci Technol 29:2429–2436.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00009a040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jakob A, Stucki S, Struis RPWJ (1996) Complete heavy metal removal from fly ash by heat treatment: influence of chlorides on evaporation rates. Environ Sci Technol 30:3275–3283.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es960059z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jiang Y, Xi B, Li X et al (2009) Effect of water-extraction on characteristics of melting and solidification of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator. J Hazard Mater 161:871–877.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.04.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jiao F, Zhang L, Dong Z et al (2016) Study on the species of heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ash and their leaching behavior. Fuel Process Technol 152:108–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FUPROC.2016.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kalmykova Y, Fedje KK (2013) Phosphorus recovery from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Waste Manag 33:1403–1410.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WASMAN.2013.01.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim S-Y, Matsuto T, Tanaka N (2003) Evaluation of pre-treatment methods for landfill disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration. Waste Manag Res 21:416–423.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X0302100504 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kirk DW, Chan CCY, Marsh H (2002) Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash. J Hazard Mater 90:39–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00328-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kirkelund GM, Ottosen LM, Villumsen A (2010) Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation. Chemosphere 79:997–1002.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2010.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lam CHK, Ip AWM, Barford JP, McKay G (2010) Use of Incineration MSW ash: a review. Sustainability 2:1943–1968.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su2071943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li H, Muhammad F, Yan Y et al (2018) Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash pretreated by nitric acid. R Soc Open Sci 5:180372.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lima AT, Ottosen LM, Ribeiro AB (2009) Electroremediation of straw and co-combustion ash under acidic conditions. J Hazard Mater 161:1003–1009.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2008.04.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lima AT, Ottosen LM, Ribeiro AB (2012) Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals. J Environ Manag 95:S110–S115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JENVMAN.2010.11.009 Google Scholar
  34. Liu J, Chen J, Huang L (2015) Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments. Sci Rep 5:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep17270 Google Scholar
  35. Lundtorp K, Jensen DL, Sorensen MA et al (2002) Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: concept and product characterisation. Waste Manag Res 20:69–79.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X0202000108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahieux P-Y, Aubert J-E, Cyr M et al (2010) Quantitative mineralogical composition of complex mineral wastes—contribution of the Rietveld method. Waste Manag 30:378–388.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WASMAN.2009.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mangialardi T (2003) Disposal of MSWI fly ash through a combined washing-immobilisation process. J Hazard Mater 98:225–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00359-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mangialardi T (2004) Effects of a washing pre-treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash on the hydration behaviour and properties of ash-Portland cement mixtures. Adv Cem Res 16:45–54.  https://doi.org/10.1680/adcr.16.2.45.36254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mangialardi T, Paolini A, Polettini A, Sirini P (1999) Optimization of the solidification/stabilization process of MSW fly ash in cementitious matrices. J Hazard Mater 70:53–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00132-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mulder E (1996) Pre-treatment of mswi fly ash for useful application. Waste Manag 16:181–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(96)00040-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nagib S, Inoue K (2000) Recovery of lead and zinc from fly ash generated from municipal incineration plants by means of acid and/or alkaline leaching. Hydrometallurgy 56:269–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00073-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nowak B, Pessl A, Aschenbrenner P et al (2009) Thermal processing for heavy metal removal of municipal solid waste fly ash. In: Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  43. Nowak B, Pessl A, Aschenbrenner P et al (2010) Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash by chlorination and thermal treatment. J Hazard Mater 179:323–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2010.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nowak B, Frías Rocha S, Aschenbrenner P et al (2012) Heavy metal removal from MSW fly ash by means of chlorination and thermal treatment: influence of the chloride type. Chem Eng J 179:178–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.10.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Okada T, Tojo Y, Tanaka N, Matsuto T (2007) Recovery of zinc and lead from fly ash from ash-melting and gasification-melting processes of MSW—comparison and applicability of chemical leaching methods. Waste Manag 27:69–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2005.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ottosen LM, Lima AT, Pedersen AJ, Ribeiro AB (2006) Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:553–559.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pan JR, Huang C, Kuo JJ, Lin SH (2008) Recycling MSWI bottom and fly ash as raw materials for Portland cement. Waste Manag 28:1113–1118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pedersen AJ (2002) Evaluation of assisting agents for electrodialytic removal of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr from MSWI fly ash. J Hazard Mater 95:185–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00138-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pedersen AJ, Ottosen LM, Villumsen A (2003) Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes: influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes. J Hazard Mater 100:65–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(03)00064-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pedersen AJ, Ottosen LM, Villumsen A (2005) Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent. J Hazard Mater 122:103–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2005.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quina MJ, Bordado JC, Quinta-Ferreira RM (2008) Treatment and use of air pollution control residues from MSW incineration: an overview. Waste Manag 28:2097–2121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WASMAN.2007.08.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Senophiyah Mary J, Meenambal T (2018) Removal of copper from bioleachate of electronic waste using banana-activated carbon (BAC) and comparison with commercial-activated carbon (CAC). In: Ghosh S (ed) Utilization and management of bioresources. Springer, Singapore, pp 233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stucki S, Jakob A (1998) Thermal treatment of incinerator fly ash: factors influencing the evaporation of ZnCl2. Waste Manag 17:231–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(97)10020-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–851.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50043a017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang K-S, Chiang K-Y, Lin K-L, Sun C-J (2001) Effects of a water-extraction process on heavy metal behavior in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Hydrometallurgy 62:73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(01)00186-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang L, Jin Y, Nie Y, Li R (2010) Recycling of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for ordinary Portland cement production: a real-scale test. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:1428–1435.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weibel G, Eggenberger U, Schlumberger S, Mäder UK (2017) Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. Waste Manag 62:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wey MY, Liu KY, Tsai TH, Chou JT (2006) Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator with rotary kiln. J Hazard Mater 137:981–989.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wu H-Y, Ting Y-P (2006) Metal extraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator fly ash—chemical leaching and fungal bioleaching. Enzyme Microb Technol 38:839–847.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENZMICTEC.2005.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xinghua H, Shujing Z, Hwang J-Y (2016) Physical and chemical properties of MSWI fly ash. In: Ikhmayies SJ, Li B, Carpenter JS et al (eds) Characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. Springer, Cham, pp 451–459Google Scholar
  61. Xu T-J, Ramanathan T, Ting Y-P (2014) Bioleaching of incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger—precipitation of metallic salt crystals and morphological alteration of the fungus. Biotechnol Rep 3:8–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BTRE.2014.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Xu Q-T, Li J-C, Xue H-G, Guo S-P (2018) Binary iron sulfides as anode materials for rechargeable batteries: crystal structures, syntheses, and electrochemical performance. J Power Sources 379:41–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yang J, Wang Q, Wang Q, Wu T (2009) Heavy metals extraction from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using adapted metal tolerant Aspergillus niger. Bioresour Technol 100:254–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2008.05.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yang Z, Tian S, Ji R et al (2017) Effect of water-washing on the co-removal of chlorine and heavy metals in air pollution control residue from MSW incineration. Waste Manag 68:221–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.06.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yang Z, Ji R, Liu L et al (2018) Recycling of municipal solid waste incineration by-product for cement composites preparation. Constr Build Mater 162:794–801.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yvon J, Antenucci D, Jdid E-A et al (2006) Long-term stability in landfills of municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes solidified/stabilized by hydraulic binders. J Geochem Explor 90:143–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.GEXPLO.2005.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang FS, Itoh H (2006) Extraction of metals from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by hydrothermal process. J Hazard Mater 136:663–670.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zheng L, Wang C, Wang W et al (2011) Immobilization of MSWI fly ash through geopolymerization: effects of water-wash. Waste Manag 31:311–317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2010.05.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversity of Naples “Parthenope”, Centro Direzionale di NapoliNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Cassino and Southern LazioCassinoItaly

Personalised recommendations