An overview of microwave hydrothermal carbonization and microwave pyrolysis of biomass

  • Sabzoi NizamuddinEmail author
  • Humair Ahmed Baloch
  • M. T. H. Siddiqui
  • N. M. MubarakEmail author
  • M. M. Tunio
  • A. W. Bhutto
  • Abdul Sattar Jatoi
  • G. J. Griffin
  • M. P. Srinivasan
review paper


Biomass utilization has received much attention for production of high density solid fuels. Utilization of cheap and naturally available precursors through environmentally friendly and effective processes is an attractive and emerging research area. Pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) are well-known technologies available for production of solid biofuel using conventional or microwave heating. Microwave heating is a simpler and more efficient heating method than conventional heating. This study presents a critical review on microwave pyrolysis and microwave HTC for solid fuel production in terms of yield and quality of products. Moreover, a brief summary of parameters of microwave pyrolysis and microwave HTC are discussed. The fuel, chemical, structural and thermal weight loss characteristics of solid fuels produced from different biomass are discussed and compared.


Biomass Microwave heating Pyrolysis Hydrothermal carbonization Solid char 


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceCurtin UniversitySarawakMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Energy and Environment EngineeringQuaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and TechnologyNawabshahPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringDawood University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan

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