Multimedia-assisted self-learning materials: the benefits of E-flashcards for vocabulary learning in Chinese as a foreign language
- 287 Downloads
In this study, we examined the effects of E-flashcards and paper flashcards on Chinese vocabulary learning and learning attitudes among students learning Chinese as a foreign language. One hundred fourth and fifth grade English-speaking students participated in two groups, E-flashcards (n = 50) and paper flashcards (n = 50), to learn 20 new Chinese words. E-flashcards (or digital flashcards through students’ iPads) incorporate multimedia resources with comprehensive visual, verbal, and audio inputs while the paper flashcards provide only visual and verbal inputs. Results revealed that students who used E-flashcards statistically outperformed those who used paper flashcards on immediate post-tests of Chinese word reading and listening, as well as on 1-week delayed listening test. In addition, students who used E-flashcards demonstrated more positive learning attitudes toward Chinese word learning than those who used paper flashcards. Such findings support the audio application of multimedia on Chinese word recognition among novice Chinese language learners as an effective pedagogical approach. Instructional implications are discussed.
KeywordsChinese as a foreign language (CFL) Vocabulary learning Multimedia aids Learning attitudes E-flashcards
- Ahmadian, M., Amerian, M., & Goodarzi, A. (2015). A comparative study of paper-based and computer-based contextualization in vocabulary learning of EFL students. Advances in Language and Literacy Studies, 6, 96–102.Google Scholar
- Başoğlu, E. B., & Akdemir, Ö. (2010). A comparison of undergraduate students’ English vocabulary learning: Using mobile phones and flash cards. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3), 1–7.Google Scholar
- Chen, H.-C., Hsu, C.-C., Chang, L.-Y., Lin, Y.-C., Chang, K.-E., & Sung, Y.-T. (2013). Using a radical-derived character E-learning platform to increase learner knowledge of Chinese characters. Language Learning and Technology, 17, 89–106.Google Scholar
- Children’s Chinese Competency Certification. (2015). CCCC word list. Retrieved 5 January 2017, from http://cccc.sc-top.org.tw/.
- Chuang, C. J. (1975). The function of imagery in learning of Chinese language. Acta Psychologica, 1, 145–150.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, E. B. (2011). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research and everyday experience (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
- Hatch, E., & Brown, C. (1995). Vocabulary, semantics and language educations. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
- Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.Google Scholar
- Keller, J. M. (1993). IMMS: Instructional materials motivation survey. Tallahassee: Florida State University.Google Scholar
- Keller, J. M. (2009). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach. New York: Springer Science Business Media.Google Scholar
- Kim, D., & Gilman, D. A. (2008). Effects of text, audio, and graphic aids in multimedia instruction for vocabulary learning. Educational Technology and Society, 11, 114–126.Google Scholar
- Leong, C. K. (1997). Paradigmatic analysis of Chinese word reading: Research findings and classroom practices. In C. K. Leong & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Cross language studies of learning to reading and spell: Phonological and orthographic processing (pp. 379–417). Dordrecht/Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Low, J. H., Hew, S. H., & Wong, C. O. (2014). Innovative pictogram Chinese characters representation. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 8, 604–608.Google Scholar
- Nation, I. S. P. (2006). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, T. (1998). The flashcard strikes back. The Reading Teacher, 52, 188–192.Google Scholar
- Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
- Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
- Paribakht, T. S., &Wesche, M. B. (1992). A methodology for studying the relationship between comprehension and second language development in a comprehension-based ESL program. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED342237).Google Scholar
- Steering Committee for the Test of Proficiency-Huayu. (2015). Children’s Chinese competency certification. Retrieved 5 January 2017, from http://cccc.sc-top.org.tw/download/cccc/cccc.pdf.
- Sung, K.-Y. (2014). Novice learners’ Chinese character learning strategies and performance. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 11, 35–51.Google Scholar
- Sydorenko, T. (2010). Modality of input and vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning and Technology, 14, 50–73.Google Scholar
- Texas Education Agency. (1997). A Texas framework for languages other than English. Retrieved 5 January 2017, from http://curriculum.austinisd.org/wrldLang/general/documents/Texas_Framework_LOTE_000.pdf.
- Texas Education Agency. (2015). 2013–2014 school report card. Retrieved 5 January 2017, from http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/src/2014/campus.srch.html.
- The National Standards Collaborative Board. (2015). World-readiness standards for learning languages (4th ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education. (2010). Teachers’ use of educational technology in U.S. public schools: 2009. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010040.pdf.
- Xu, X. (2011). Using meaningful interpretation and chunking to memory: The case of Chinese character learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stanford University, California.Google Scholar