Advertisement

Reading and Writing

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1149–1174 | Cite as

Investigating multiple source use among students with and without dyslexia

  • Anette Andresen
  • Øistein Anmarkrud
  • Ivar BråtenEmail author
Article

Abstract

Learning from different representations, such as text and pictures, is supposed to be more effective than learning from text alone. However, there is very limited research on potential differences between students with and without dyslexia with respect to learning from different representations. This study compared students with and without dyslexia working with multiple information sources on a socio-scientific issue in a digital environment. Participants were 44 Norwegian tenth-graders, of whom 22 were diagnosed with dyslexia. All participants were presented with a researcher generated Internet site containing three different web pages, each including a video, a text, and a picture, on which conflicting perspectives on the controversial issue of sun exposure and health were discussed. In a first session, participants’ topic knowledge, word recognition, and working memory were measured. In a second session, participants studied the three web pages to prepare an oral presentation on the issue, before they again completed the topic knowledge measure and responded to two integrative questions that assessed their integration of information across web pages and representations. No reliable differences were found between the two groups with regard to pre-reading topic knowledge, post-reading topic knowledge, or knowledge gain. However, participants without dyslexia clearly outperformed participants with dyslexia on multiple source integration and were much more likely to draw on textual sources when trying to integrate information across different web pages and representations. Results also suggested that observed differences with respect to multiple source integration were largely due to working memory differences between the two groups of students.

Keywords

Multiple source use Multimedia learning Dyslexia Working memory 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to Shane Colvin and Arild Moland for help in creating the learning materials, and to Ladislao Salmerón for statistical advice.

References

  1. Abtahi, M. S. (2012). Interactive multimedia learning object (IMLO) for dyslexic children. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1206–1210.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Wabil, A., Zaphiris, P., & Wilson, S. (2007). Web navigation for individuals with dyslexia: An explanatory study. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.), Proceedings from the 4th international conference on universal access in human-computer interaction: Coping with diversity (pp. 593–602). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Andreassen, R., Jensen, M. S., & Bråten, I. (2017). Investigating self-regulated study strategies among postsecondary dyslexic students: A diary method study. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 30, 1891–1910.Google Scholar
  4. Anmarkrud, Ø., Brante, E. W., & Andresen, A. (2018). Potential processing challenges of Internet use among readers with dyslexia. In J. L. G. Braasch, I. Bråten, & M. T. McCrudden (Eds.), Handbook of multiple source use (pp. 117–132). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Austin, K. A. (2009). Multimedia learning: Cognitive individual differences and display design techniques predict transfer learning with multimedia learning modules. Computers & Education, 53, 1339–1354.Google Scholar
  6. Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 417–423.Google Scholar
  7. Barzilai, S., & Ka’adan, I. (2017). Learning to integrate divergent information sources: The interplay of epistemic cognition and epistemic metacognition. Metacognition and Learning, 12, 193–232.Google Scholar
  8. Beacham, N. A., & Alty, J. L. (2006). An investigation into the effects that digital media can have on the learning outcomes of individuals who have dyslexia. Computers & Education, 47, 74–93.Google Scholar
  9. Berget, G., & Sandnes, F. E. (2015). Searching databases without query-building aids: Implications for dyslexic users. Information Research, 20, 689.Google Scholar
  10. Berninger, V. W., Raskind, W., Richards, T., Abbott, R., & Stock, P. (2008). A multidisciplinary approach to understanding developmental dyslexia within working-memory architecture: Genotypes, phenotypes, brain, and instruction. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 707–744.Google Scholar
  11. Bishop, D. V. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: Same or different? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 858–886.Google Scholar
  12. Björnsson, C. H. (1968). Läsbarhet [Readability]. Stockholm: Liber.Google Scholar
  13. Björnsson, C. H. (1983). Readability of newspapers in 11 languages. Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 480–497.Google Scholar
  14. Borella, E., Carretti, B., & Pelegrina, S. (2010). The specific role of inhibition in reading comprehension in good and poor comprehenders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 541–552.Google Scholar
  15. Borg, J. N., Lantz, A., & Gulliksen, J. (2015). Accessibility to electronic communication for people with cognitive disabilities: A systematic search and review of empirical evidence. Universal Access in the Information Society, 14, 547–562.Google Scholar
  16. Braasch, J. L. G., Bråten, I., & McCrudden, M. T. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of multiple source use. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Braasch, J. L. G., Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., & Anmarkrud, Ø. (2014). Incremental theories of intelligence predict multiple document comprehension. Learning and Individual Differences, 31, 11–20.Google Scholar
  18. Braasch, J. L. G., Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., Anmarkrud, Ø., & Ferguson, L. E. (2013). Promoting secondary school students’ evaluation of source features of multiple documents. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 180–195.Google Scholar
  19. Bråten, I., Anmarkrud, Ø., Brandmo, C., & Strømsø, H. I. (2014). Developing and testing a model of direct and indirect relationships between individual differences, processing, and multiple-text comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 30, 9–24.Google Scholar
  20. Bråten, I., Lie, A., Andreassen, R., & Olaussen, B. S. (1999). Leisure time reading and orthographic processes in word recognition among Norwegian third- and fourth-grade students. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 11, 65–88.Google Scholar
  21. Bruck, M. (1990). Word recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26, 439–454.Google Scholar
  22. Brunyé, T. T., Taylor, H. A., Rapp, D. N., & Spiro, A. B. (2006). Learning procedures: The role of working memory in multimedia learning experiences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 917–940.Google Scholar
  23. Butcher, K. R. (2014). The multimedia principle. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (2nd ed., pp. 174–205). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cain, K. E., Bryant, P. E., & Oakhill, J. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 31–42.Google Scholar
  25. Castek, J., Zawilinski, L., McVerry, J. G., O’Byrne, W. I., & Leu, D. J. (2011). The new literacies of online reading comprehension: New opportunities and challenges for students with learning difficulties. In C. Wyatt-Smith, J. Elkins, & S. Gunn (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy (pp. 91–110). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Cerpa, N., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1996). Some conditions under which integrated computer-based training software can facilitate learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15, 345–367.Google Scholar
  27. Chen, C. J., & Keong, M. W. Y. (2017). Affording inclusive dyslexia-friendly online text reading. Universal Access in the Information Society, 16, 951–965.Google Scholar
  28. Cho, B.-Y., & Afflerbach, P. (2017). An evolving perspective of constructively responsive reading comprehension strategies in multilayered digital text environments. In S. E. Israel (Ed.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (2nd ed., pp. 109–134). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  29. Cho, B.-Y., Woodward, L., & Li, D. (2017). Examining adolescents’ strategic processing during online reading with a question generating task. American Educational Research Journal, 54, 691–724.Google Scholar
  30. Cicchini, G. M., Marino, C., Mascheretti, S., Perani, D., & Morrone, M. C. (2015). Strong motion deficits in dyslexia associated with DCDC2 gene alteration. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 8059–8064.Google Scholar
  31. Conners, F. A., & Olson, R. K. (1990). Reading comprehension in normal and dyslexic readers: A component-skills analysis. In D. Balota, G. Flores d’Arcais, & K. Rayner (Eds.), Comprehension processes in reading (pp. 557–579). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Cook, A. E., Halleran, J. G., & O’Brien, E. J. (1998). What is readily available during reading? A memory-based view of text processing. Discourse Processes, 26, 109–129.Google Scholar
  33. Cornelissen, P., Richardson, A., Mason, A., Fowler, S., & Stein, J. (1995). Contrast sensitivity and coherent motion detection measured at photopic luminance levels in dyslexia and controls. Vision Research, 35, 1483–1495.Google Scholar
  34. Corriveau, K. H., Einav, S., Robinson, E. J., & Harris, P. L. (2014). To the letter: Early readers trust print-based over oral instructions to guide their actions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32, 345–358.Google Scholar
  35. Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450–466.Google Scholar
  36. de Olivera, D. G., da Silva, P. B., Dias, N. M., Sebra, A. G., & Macedo, E. C. (2014). Reading component skills in dyslexia: Word recognition, comprehension, and processing speed. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1339.Google Scholar
  37. DeSchryver, M. (2015). Higher order thinking in an online world: Toward a theory of web-mediated knowledge synthesis. Teachers College Record, 116, 1–44.Google Scholar
  38. Dutke, S., & Rinck, M. (2006). Multimedia learning: Working memory and the learning of word and picture diagrams. Learning and Instruction, 16, 526–537.Google Scholar
  39. Einav, S., Robinson, E. J., & Fox, A. (2012). Take it as read: Origins of trust in knowledge gained from print. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 114, 262–274.Google Scholar
  40. Eyden, J., Robinson, E. J., Einav, S., & Jaswal, V. K. (2013). The power of print: Children’s trust in unexpected printed suggestions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 593–608.Google Scholar
  41. Ferguson, L. E., & Bråten, I. (2013). Student profiles of knowledge and epistemic beliefs: Changes and relations to multiple-text comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 25, 49–61.Google Scholar
  42. Follmer, D. J. (2018). Executive function and reading comprehension: A meta-analytic review. Educational Psychologist, 53, 42–60.Google Scholar
  43. Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P., Willis, C., & Adams, A.-M. (2006). Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 265–281.Google Scholar
  44. Goldman, S. R., Snow, C., & Vaughn, S. (2016). Common themes in teaching reading for understanding: Lessons from three projects. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 60, 255–264.Google Scholar
  45. Hannus, M., & Hyönä, J. (1999). Utilization of illustrations during learning of science textbook passages among low- and high-ability children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 95–123.Google Scholar
  46. Harber, J. R. (1983). The effects of illustrations on the reading performance of learning disabled and normal children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, 55–60.Google Scholar
  47. Harm, M. V., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1999). Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models. Psychological Review, 106, 491–528.Google Scholar
  48. Harrison, C. (2012). Literacy, technology, and the Internet: What are the challenges and opportunities for learners with reading difficulties, and how do we support them in meeting those challenges and grasping those opportunities? In C. Wyatt-Smith, J. Elkins, & S. Gunn (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy (pp. 111–132). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  49. Henry, L. A., Castek, J., O’Byrne, W. I., & Zawilinski, L. (2012). Using peer collaboration to support online reading, writing, and communication: An empowerment model for struggling readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 28, 279–306.Google Scholar
  50. Høien, T. (2014). Logos - Teoribasert diagnostisering av lesevansker [Logos - Theory based assessment of reading difficulties]. Bryne: Logometrica.Google Scholar
  51. Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.Google Scholar
  52. Houts, P. S., Doak, C. C., Doak, L. G., & Loscalzo, M. J. (2006). The role of pictures in improving health communication: A review of research on attention, comprehension, recall, and adherence. Patient Education and Counseling, 61, 173–190.Google Scholar
  53. Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2009). Developmental disorders of language learning and cognition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Jacobson, C. (1995). Word Recognition Index (WRI) as a quick screening marker of dyslexia. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 16, 260–266.Google Scholar
  55. Jian, Y.-C., & Ko, H.-W. (2017). Influences of text difficulty and reading ability on learning illustrated science texts for children: An eye movement study. Computers & Education, 113, 263–279.Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, C. I., & Mayer, R. E. (2012). An eye movement analysis of the spatial contiguity effect in multimedia learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 18, 178–179.Google Scholar
  57. Johnston, R., Pitchford, N. J., Roach, N. W., & Ledgeway, T. (2016). Why is processing of global motion impaired in adults with developmental dyslexia? Brain and Cognition, 108, 20–31.Google Scholar
  58. Jones, M. W., Branigan, H. P., Hatzidak, A., & Obregon, M. (2010). Is the “naming” deficit in dyslexia a misnomer? Cognition, 116, 56–70.Google Scholar
  59. Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review, 99, 122–149.Google Scholar
  60. Kammerer, Y., Meier, N., & Stahl, E. (2016). Fostering secondary-school students’ intertext model formation when reading a set of websites: The effectiveness of source prompts. Computers & Education, 102, 52–64.Google Scholar
  61. Katz, R. B. (1986). Phonological deficiencies in children with reading-disability: Evidence from an object-naming task. Cognition, 22, 225–257.Google Scholar
  62. Kingsley, T., & Tancock, S. (2013). Internet inquiry: Fundamental competencies for online comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 67, 389–399.Google Scholar
  63. Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Kintsch, W., & Rawson, K. (2007). Comprehension. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 289–304). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  65. Klinkenberg, J. E., & Skaar, E. (2003). STAS: Standardisert test i avkoding og staving [STAS: Standarized test of decoding and spelling]. Hønefoss: Ringerike PPT.Google Scholar
  66. Levie, W. H., & Lentz, R. (1982). Effects of text illustrations: A review of research. ECTJ, 30, 195–232.Google Scholar
  67. Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1–14.Google Scholar
  68. MacCullagh, L., Bosanquet, A., & Badcock, N. (2017). University students with dyslexia: A qualitative exploratory study of learning practices, challenges, and strategies. Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 23, 3–23.Google Scholar
  69. MacFarlane, A., Al-Wabil, A., Marshall, A., Albrair, C. R., Jones, S. A., & Zaphiris, P. (2010). The effect of dyslexia on information retrieval: A pilot study. Journal of Documentation, 66, 307–326.Google Scholar
  70. Martens, V. E. G., & De Jong, P. F. (2008). Effects of repeated reading on the length effect in word and pseudoword reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 31, 40–54.Google Scholar
  71. Mason, L., Junyent, A. A., & Tornatora, M. C. (2014). Epistemic evaluation and comprehension of web-source information on controversial science-related topics: Effects of a short-term instructional intervention. Computers & Education, 76, 143–157.Google Scholar
  72. Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32, 1–19.Google Scholar
  73. Mayer, R. E. (2014). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (2nd ed., pp. 43–71). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Mayer, R. E., Heiser, H., & Lonn, S. (2001). Cognitive constraints on multimedia learning: When presenting more material results in less understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 187–198.Google Scholar
  75. McCarthy, J. E., & Swierenga, S. J. (2010). What we know about dyslexia and Web accessibility: A research review. Universal Access in the Information Society, 9, 147–152.Google Scholar
  76. Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S. A. H., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 322–352.Google Scholar
  77. Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358–368.Google Scholar
  78. Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (2002). Verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: When reading helps listening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 156–163.Google Scholar
  79. Nation, K., & Snowling, M. J. (1998). Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evidence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension. Child Development, 69, 996–1011.Google Scholar
  80. Olander, M. H., Brante, E. W., & Nyström, M. (2017). The effect of illustration on improving text comprehension in dyslexic adults. Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 23, 42–65.Google Scholar
  81. Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.Google Scholar
  83. Rack, J. P., Snowling, M. J., & Olson, R. K. (1992). The nonword reading deficit in developmental dyslexia: A review. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 28–53.Google Scholar
  84. Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., et al. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841–865.Google Scholar
  85. Ransby, M. J., & Swanson, H. L. (2003). Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 538–555.Google Scholar
  86. Roca, J., Tejero, P., & Insa, B. (2018). Accident head? Difficulties of drivers with and without reading impairment recognizing words and pictograms in variable message signs. Applied Ergonomics, 67, 83–90.Google Scholar
  87. Rose, T. L. (1986). Effects of illustrations on reading comprehension of learning disabled students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 542–544.Google Scholar
  88. Rouet, J.-F., & Britt, M. A. (2014). Multimedia learning from multiple documents. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (2nd ed., pp. 813–841). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Rukavina, I., & Daneman, M. (1996). Integration and its effect on acquiring knowledge about competing scientific theories from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 272–287.Google Scholar
  90. Sass, S., & Schütte, K. (2016). Helping poor readers demonstrate their science competence: Item characteristics supporting text-picture comprehension. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34, 91–96.Google Scholar
  91. Schnotz, W., & Bannert, M. (2003). Construction and interference in learning from multiple representations. Learning and Instruction, 13, 141–156.Google Scholar
  92. Schnotz, W., Wagner, I., Ullrich, M., Horz, H., & McElvany, N. (2017). Development of students’ text-picture integration and reading competence across grades 5–7 in a three-tier secondary school system: A longitudinal study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 51, 152–169.Google Scholar
  93. Schüler, A., Scheiter, K., & van Genuchten, E. (2011). The role of working memory in multimedia instruction: Is working memory working during learning from text and pictures? Educational Psychology Review, 23, 389–411.Google Scholar
  94. Seidenberg, M. S. (2007). Connectionist models of reading. In M. G. Gaskell (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 235–250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 1329–1349.Google Scholar
  96. Smith-Spark, J. H., & Fisk, J. E. (2007). Working memory functioning in developmental dyslexia. Memory, 15, 34–56.Google Scholar
  97. Snowling, M. J., van Wagtendonk, B., & Stafford, C. (1988). Object-naming deficits in developmental dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 11, 67–85.Google Scholar
  98. Strømsø, H. I., Hagtvet, B. E., Lyster, S. A. H., & Rygvold, A. L. (1997). Lese- og skriveprøver for studenter på høyskole- og universitetsnivå [Reading and spelling tests for students in higher education]. Oslo: Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  99. Swanson, H. L., & Trahan, M. F. (1992). Learning disabled readers’ comprehension of computer mediated text: The influence of working memory, metacognition, and attribution. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 7, 74–86.Google Scholar
  100. Taylor, M., Duffy, S., & Hughes, G. (2007). The use of animation in higher education teaching to support students with dyslexia. Education + Training, 49, 25–35.Google Scholar
  101. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2017). Nasjonale prøver [National tests]. Retrieved November 7, 2017, from https://www.udir.no/eksamen-og-prover/prover/nasjonale-prover/.
  102. van den Broek, P., & Kendeou, P. (2015). Building coherence in web-based and other non-traditional reading environments: Cognitive opportunities and challenges. In R. J. Spiro, M. DeSchryver, M. S. Hagerman, P. M. Morsink, & P. Thompson (Eds.), Reading at a crossroads? Disjunctures and continuities in current conceptions and practices (pp. 104–114). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  103. van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2014). Dealing with conflicting information from multiple nonlinear texts: Effects of prior attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 101–111.Google Scholar
  104. Vinje, F. E. (1982). Journalistspråket [The journalist language]. Fredrikstad: Institute for Journalism.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special Needs EducationUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of EducationUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations