Exploring the role of logographemes in Chinese handwritten word production
Recent research has demonstrated that abstract orthographic representations such as morphemes, syllables, and graphemes, influence handwritten production in languages with alphabetic scripts. The orthographic representations involved in the written production of non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese are less well understood. Chinese words consist of one or more characters which typically contain embedded radicals, with radicals themselves composed of strokes. A logographemic representational level, in between radical and strokes, has also been postulated. Here we report four experiments using a form preparation task (“implicit priming”) to test for the presence of radical and logographemic priming effects in writers of simplified Chinese characters. We found strong evidence for radical-based effects, but only weak evidence for logographemic priming effects, which contrasts with recent positive logographemic priming effects reported by Chen and Cherng (2013) for writers of traditional characters. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed in terms of potential differences between simplified and traditional scripts, as well as other procedural differences.
KeywordsHandwriting Orthographic production Chinese Logographemes
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), No. 31400967, and the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in joint project Crossmodal Learning, DFG TRR-169/NSFC No. 61621136008 to the corresponding author.
- Bates, D. M. (2005). Fitting linear mixed models in R. R News (pp. 27–30).Google Scholar
- Bates, D., Kliegl, R., Vasishth, S., & Baayen, H. (2015). Parsimonious mixed models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1506.04967.
- Bates, D. M., & Maechler, M. (2016). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using ‘Eigen’ and S4. R package version 1.1-12. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4.
- Chen, J. Y., & Cherng, R. J. (2013). The proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(517), 10–3389.Google Scholar
- Chinese Linguistic Data Consortium. (2003). 现代汉语通用词表 (Chinese lexicon) (CLDC-LAC-2003-001). Beijing: Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation.Google Scholar
- Fu, Y. H. (1991). Hanzi de bujian (Logographemes of Chinese characters). Yuwenjianshe, 12, 3–6.Google Scholar
- Ho, C. S.-H., Yau, P. W.-Y., & Au, A. (2003). Development of orthographic knowledge and its relationship with reading and spelling among Chinese kindergarten and primary school children. In C. McBride-Chang & H.-C. Chen (Eds.), Chinese children’s reading development (pp. 51–72). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
- Jeffreys, H. (1961). The theory of probability (3rd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Kandel, S., Álvarez, C. J., & Vallée, N. (2006a). Syllables as processing units in handwriting production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 18–31.Google Scholar
- Kandel, S., Álvarez, C., & Vallée, N. (2008). Morphemes also serve as processing units in handwriting production. In M. Baciu (Ed.), Neuropsychology and cognition of language—Behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of spoken and written language (pp. 87–100). Kerala: Research Signpost.Google Scholar
- Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. (2016). lmerTest: Tests in linear mixed effects models. R package version 2.0-30. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lmerTest.
- Law, S. P. (1994). The structure of orthographic representations of Chinese characters: From the perspective of the cognitive neuropsychological approach. Bulletin of Institute of History and Philology, 65, 81–130.Google Scholar
- Law, S. P., & Caramazza, A. (1995). Cognitive processes in writing Chinese characters: Basic issues and some preliminary data. In B. de Gelder & J. Morais (Eds.), Speech and reading: A comparative approach (pp. 143–190). Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Law, S. P., & Leung, M. T. (2000). Structural representations of characters in Chinese writing: Evidence from a case of acquired dysgraphia. Psychologia, 43, 67–83.Google Scholar
- Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., & Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 1–38.Google Scholar
- R Core Team. (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
- Rapp, B., & Caramazza, A. (1997). From graphemes to abstract letter shapes: Levels of representation in written spelling. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 1130–1152.Google Scholar
- State Language Commission. (1998). The Chinese character component standard of GB13000.1 character set for information processing. Beijing: Language & Culture Press.Google Scholar
- Su, P. C. (1994). Xiandai Hanzixue gangyao (An introduction to the study of contemporary Chinese characters). Beijing: Beijing University Press.Google Scholar
- Zhang, P. (1984). Hanzi bujian fenxi de yuanjiu he lilun (The method and theory of analyzing logographemes in Chinese characters). Yuwenyanjiu, 1, 37–43.Google Scholar
- Zhou, Y. G. (1978). 现代汉字中声旁的表音功能问题 (To what degree are the “phonetics” of present-day Chinese characters still phonetic?). Zhongguo Yuwen, 146, 172–177.Google Scholar
- Zhu, X. (1988). 现代汉字声旁表音功能的动态 (Analysis of cuing function of phonetic components in modern Chinese). In X. Yuan (Ed.), Proceedings of the symposium on the Chinese language and characters (pp. 260–288). Beijing: Guang Ming Daily Press.Google Scholar