Investigating the mechanisms of written word production: insights from the written blocked cyclic naming paradigm
In three experiments, we examined whether similar principles apply to written and spoken production. Using a blocked cyclic written picture naming paradigm, we replicated the semantic interference effects previously reported in spoken production (Experiment 1). Using a written spelling-to-dictation blocked cyclic naming task, we also demonstrated that these interference effects disappear when the task does not require semantically-mediated lexical selection (Experiment 2). Results are parallel to those reported for the analogous spoken production task of reading aloud. Similar results were observed in written spelling to dictation regardless of whether stimuli consisted of words with high or low probability phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences (Experiment 3) revealing the important role of non-semantically-mediated spelling routes in written word production. Overall, our results support the view that similar mechanisms underlie written and spoken production. This includes an incremental learning mechanism underlying semantically-mediated lexical selection that produces long-lived interference effects when multiple semantically similar items are repeatedly named.
KeywordsBlocked cyclic naming Spelling to dictation Semantic interference Lexical selection Written production
We are grateful for the support provided by NIH Grant DC006740 for the investigation of the neural and cognitive bases of post-stroke recovery in dysgraphia.
- Ellis, A. W., & Young, A. W. (1988). Human Cognitive Neuropsychology. Hove, UK: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Hanna, P. R., Hanna, J. S., Hodges, R. E., & Rudorf, E. H. (1966). Phoneme–grapheme correspondences as cues to spelling improvement. Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
- Kucera, H., & Francis, W. N. (1967). Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence: Brown University Press.Google Scholar
- Mirman, D. (2014). Growth curve analysis and visualization using R. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Nickels, L. (2001). Spoken word production. In B. Rapp (Ed.), The handbook of cognitive neuropsychology: What deficits reveal about the human mind (pp. 291–320). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Lee, C. Y., Tsai, J. L., Su, E. C. I., Tzeng, O. J. L., & Hung, D. L. (2005). Consistency, regularity, and frequency effects in naming chinese characters. Language and Linguistics, 6, 75–107. www.ling.sinica.edu.tw/files/publication/j2005_1_03_9113.pdf.
- R Core Team. (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.r-project.org/.
- Tainturier, M.-J., & Rapp, B. C. (2001). The spelling process. In B. C. Rapp (Ed.), The handbook of cognitive neuropsychology: What deficits reveal about the human mind (pp. 263–290). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar