Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

, Volume 127, Issue 2, pp 1039–1058 | Cite as

Kinetic modeling of transesterification of gmelina seed oil catalyzed by alkaline activated clay (NaOH/clay) catalyst

  • Callistus N. UdeEmail author
  • Okechukwu D. Onukwuli


The kinetic modeling of transesterification of gmelina seed oil, GSO catalyzed by alkaline activated clay catalyst was investigated. The catalyst synthesized by activating clay with sodium hydroxide was used to examine the distribution of transesterification products. The reaction was conducted at 8:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 6 wt% catalyst concentration and agitation speed of 300 rpm, temperatures of 45, 50 and 55 °C with different time interval. The kinetics was studied using elementary reaction mechanism of Eley–Rideal (ER). The results obtained showed that the clay belongs to kaolinite group and alkaline activated clay catalyst, was able to convert GSO to biodiesel with significant changes in concentrations of the transesterification products and reactants between 0 and 2.5 h. The kinetic investigation revealed that the data fitted the Eley–Rideal (ER) kinetic model with surface reaction between non-adsorbed methanol and adsorbed triglyceride as rate determining step, the rate determining step occurring at a temperature of below boiling point of methanol. The activation energy and frequency factor for the forward reaction were determined to be 2.90 kJ/mol and 0.025 h−1, respectively. The predictive power of the developed model for RDS was checked by fitting experimental data and it revealed good correlation.


Gmelina seed oil Clay Eley–Rideal Heterogeneous catalyst Sodium hydroxide 



  1. 1.
    Sharma YC, Singh B, Upadhyay SN (2008) Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review. Fue 87:2355–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Veljkovic VB, Stamenkovic OS, Todorovic ZB, Lazic ML, Skala DU (2009) Kinetics of sunflower oil methanolysis catalyzed by calcium oxide. Fuel 88:1554–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paula B, Shahar N, Zeev W (2011) Castor oil biodiesel and its blends as alternative fuel. Biomass Bioenergy 35:2861–2866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anthony Miraculas G, Bose N, Edwin Raj R (2014) Optimization of process parameters for biodiesel extraction from tamanu oil using design of experiments. J Renew Sustain Energy 6(33):1–20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Melvin Jose DF, Edwin Raj R, Durga Prasad D, Robert Kennedy Z, Mohammed Ibrahim A (2011) A multi-variant approach to optimize process parameters for biodiesel extraction from rubber seed oil. Appl Energy 88(6):2056–2063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sunil K, Jasvinder S, Nanoti SM, Garg MO (2012) A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of jatropha biodiesel production in India. Biores Technol 110:723–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anyanwu CN, Mbajiorgu CC, Ibeto CN, Ejikeme PM (2013) Effect of reaction temperature and time on neem methyl ester yield in a batch reactor. Energy Convers Manage 74:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Veeraprasad G, Srinivas I (2012) The ethanolosis of Pongamia pinnata oil by a Two stage Acid-base catalyst transesterification process for production of biodiesel. Energy Sources Part A 34(16):1550–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manjunath H, Omprakash H, Hemachandra RK (2015) Process optimization for biodiesel production from simarouba, mahua, and waste cooking oils. Int J Green Energy 12(4):424–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Georgogianni KG, Kontominas MG, Pomonis PJ, Avlonitis D, Gergis V (2008) Alkaline conventional and in situ transesterification of cottonseed oil for the production of biodiesel. Energy Fuels 22:2110–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xuea Jinlin, Tony EG, Alan Hansen C (2011) Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:1098–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mythili R, Venkatachalam P, Subramanian P, Uma D (2014) Production characterization and efficiency of biodiesel: a review. Int J Energy Res 38:1233–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Naik SN (2008) Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine. Fuel 86:448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okoroigwe E, Li Z, Stuecken T, Saffron CM, Onyegegbu S (2012) Pyrolysis of Gmelina arborea wood for bio-oil/biochar production: physical and chemical characterization of the products. J Appl Sci 12(4):369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Choudhury PP (2012) Toxicity of heart wood extract of Gmelina arborea against stored grain pests. Agric Sci Resour J 2(3):131–133Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sanjay B, Dinesh CD, Dibakar CD (2012) Composition of biodiesel from Gmelina arborea seed oil. Adv Appl Sci Res 3(5):2745–2753Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abebe K, Endalew YK, Rolando Z (2011) Heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil. Energy 36:2693–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Galen JS, Mohanprasad AD, Eric J, Doskocil PJM, Michael JG (2004) Transesterification of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts. Appl Catal A 257:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boey PL, Maniam GP, Hamid SA (2011) Performance of calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production: a review. Chem Eng J 168:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Onukwuli OD, Ude CN (2018) Kinetic of African pear seed oil (APO) methanolysis catalyzed by phosphoric acid-activated kaolin clay. Appl Petrochem Res 8:299–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clark JH (2004) Catalysis of organic reaction. VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Igbokwe P, Ogbuagu J (2003) Effects of process parameters on the extraction of alumina from indigenous kaolinitic clay deposit. Niger. J Eng Res Dev 2(2):23–26Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fogler HS (2011) Element of chemical reaction engineering, 4th edn. Pearson Education Inc, Upper Saddle River, pp 655–703Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D6751 (1973) Standard Specification for Natural (Vegetable Oil) and biodiesel, ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  25. 25.
    American Society for Testing and Materials (1986) Standard test method for determination of iodine number of activated carbon. ASTM Committee on Standards, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thimmaraju N, Shamshuddin-Mohamed SZ, Pratap SR, Venkatesh (2014) Transesterification of diethyl malonate with benzyl alcohol catalyzed by modified zirconia: kinetic study. J Mol Catal A 391:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dossin TF, Reyniers M, Marin GB (2006) Kinetics of heterogeneous MgO- catalyzed transesterification. Appl Catal B 62:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Olutoye MA, Hameed BH (2016) Kinetics and deactivation of a dual-site heterogeneous oxide catalyst during the transesterification of crude jatropha oil with methanol. J Taibah Univ Sci 10(5):685–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Onukwuli OD, Ngomo HM, Susu AA (1999) Reforming of n-octane on a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst 1. Product distribution and kinetics analysis. Pet Sci Technol 17(7–8):711–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Basumatary S, Deka Dinesh C, Deka Dibakar C (2012) Composition of biodiesel from Gmelina arborea seed oil. Adv Appl Sci Res 3(5):2745–2753Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Okolie PN, Ajekwene AE, Egbeni Uaboi (2012) Extraction and characterization of oil from Jatropha curcas seed. World J Agric Sci 8(4):359–365Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uzoh FC, Onukwuli DO (2014) Extraction and characterization of gmelina seed oil; Kinetics and optimization studies. Open J Chem Eng Sci 1(2):1–18Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sani YM, Daud WMAW, AbdulAziz AR (2014) Activity of solid acid catalysts for biodiesel production: a critical review. Appl Catal A 470:140–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jacques CV (2015) Acid-base characterization of heterogeneous catalysts: an up-to-date overview. Res Chem Intermed 41:9387–9423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vicente G, Martinez M, Aracil J, Esteban A (2005) Kinetics of sunflower oil methanolysis. Ind Eng Chem Res 44:5447–5454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mu’azu K, Mohammed-Dabo IA, Waziri SM, Ahmed AS, Bugae IM, Zanna USA (2015) Kinetic modelling of transesterification of atropha curcas seed oil using heterogeneous catalyst. Eng Technol 2(3):87–94Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhou W, Konar SK, Boocock DG (2003) Ethyl esters from the single-phase base-catalyzed ethanolysis of vegetable oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 80(4):367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Projects Development Institute (PRODA)Emene-EnuguNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringNnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU)AwkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations