Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

, Volume 126, Issue 2, pp 879–901 | Cite as

Kinetic evidence for two different active sites on dry Amberlyst® 15 catalyst in the alkylation between 1-dodecene and p-xylene

  • Jeffrey C. GeeEmail author
  • Richard D. Stansifer


On Amberlyst® 15 catalyst (dry) at 85 °C, 1-dodecene underwent concurrent double bond isomerization and alkylation with p-xylene. The alkylation reaction appeared to occur by an Eley–Rideal mechanism in which adsorbed olefin reacted with bulk phase p-xylene. Kinetic data showed that alkylation was irreversible and that the intermediate complex between olefin and p-xylene underwent isomerization in which the aromatic ring moved between adjacent carbons on the dodecyl chain. Given enough reaction time, the dodecyl p-xylene isomers always reached the same equilibrium distribution, regardless of catalyst loading. Kinetic modeling of concurrent olefin isomerization and alkylation showed that these two reactions must occur on two different catalytic sites. Alkylation was inhibited by the formation of dodecyl p-xylenes, while double bond isomerization was not.


Kinetics Mechanism Alkylation Olefin isomerization Amberlyst® 15 catalyst Eley–Rideal Dodecene p-xylene 



We thank Rachel Franklin for providing proton NMR spectra, and we thank Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP for permission to publish this work.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LPKingwoodUSA

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