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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 417–437 | Cite as

Liquid phase hydrogenation of furfural under mild conditions over Pd/C catalysts of various acidity

  • Robert KosydarEmail author
  • Dorota Duraczyńska
  • Jacek Gurgul
  • Joanna Kryściak-Czerwenka
  • Alicja Drelinkiewicz
Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

The hydrogenation of furfural (FU) under mild conditions (isopropyl alcohol, 35 °C, 6 bar) was studied over 2 wt% Pd supported on non-treated (Pd/C) and SO3H-modified carbon supports. The catalysts of similar metal particles size (5–6 nm) were prepared by the colloid-based microemulsion method. The products of the Pd-catalyzed FU hydrogenation as well as the acid-sites catalyzed reactions of FU acetalization and etherification were formed. The SO3H groups in the carbon supports influence reactivity of the Pd-sites due to the Pd-electron deficient species formation manifested by the enhanced promotion of furan ring hydrogenation producing tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. Furfural diisopropyl acetal was formed even over the Pd/C catalyst of very low acid capacity and acetalization reaction was enhanced over the catalysts with SO3H groups. The furfural diisopropyl acetal content slowly decreased with furfural conversion, assisted by the growth of furfuryl isopropyl ether content. The capacity of acid sites did not strongly affect the process of ether formation evidenced by similar selectivity (10–15%) over all studied catalysts.

Keywords

Furfural hydrogenation Pd/C catalyst SO3H acid sites Furfural diisopropyl acetal Furfuryl isopropyl ether 

Abbreviations

Pd/C

Catalyst composed of Pd on as-received carbon

Pd/C-HOS

Catalyst composed of Pd on H2O2 oxidised and sulfonated carbon support

Pd/C-NS

Catalyst composed of Pd on HNO3 oxidised and sulfonated carbon support

VC

Carbon Vulcan XC-72

FU

Furfural

FA

Furfuryl alcohol

THFA

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

THFU

Tetrahydrofurfural

MF

2-Methylfuran

THMF

2-Methyltetrahydrofuran

FR

Furan

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

AC

Furfural diisopropyl acetal

ET

Furfuryl isopropyl ether

THET

Tetrahydrofurfuryl isopropyl ether

CB

Carbon mass balance

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Marian Smoluchowski Krakow Research Consortium - a Leading National Research Centre KNOW supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. This research was funded in part by the statutory research fund of ICSC PAS.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11144_2018_1494_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1082 kb)

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface ChemistryPolish Academy of SciencesKrakowPoland

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