Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 83–102 | Cite as

Thorough assessment of delayed coking correlations against literature data: Development of improved alternative models

  • Mohammad GhashghaeeEmail author


The predictability of the existing and some improved correlations were evaluated against the available largest dataset for the prediction of the product yields from delayed coking, such as, coke, liquid, gas, gas oil, naphtha, heavy gas oil, liquid sulfur content as well as API vs. CCR. Except for some cases where the relationships of Volk et al. and Castiglioni and the simplistic models of Maples, and Gary–Handwerk predicted somewhat appropriately, the existing models failed in most of the cases. The alternative models contained seven independent variables including three feedstock properties and four operating conditions. Overall, the developed correlations accounted for higher than 86% of the variances. The quality of the regressions followed the order of naphtha < dry gas < distillate < liquid sulfur content < heavy gas oil < coke < gas oil with the maximum correlation coefficient of 96.7%. The weighted absolute percentage errors with the alternative relationships of total gas oil, heavy gas oil, liquid sulfur content, and distillate were smaller than 11.12%, indicating the good predictability of the models. The new models can then be recommended for application over a wide range of operating conditions with various types of heavy fuel oils and petroleum residues.


Petroleum residue Delayed coking Correlation Pyrolysis Fuel oil 

List of symbols

a, b, …, k

Correlation constants (–)


API gravity (°)


Conradson carbon residue (wt%)


Ratio of total feed (including recycle) to fresh feed (–)


Density (g/cm3)


Error sum of squares (–)


Gas yield (wt%)


Total gas oil yield (wt%)


Yield of heavy gas oil (350+ °C) (wt%)


Liquid yield (wt%)


Yield of light gas oil (wt%)


Mean absolute deviation (–)


Naphtha (gasoline) yield (wt%)


Pressure (bar)


Prediction error sum of squares (–)


Coefficient of multiple determination (–)

\(R_{\text{adj}}^{ 2}\)

Adjusted coefficient of multiple determination (–)


Predicted squared correlation coefficient (–)


Regression sum of squares (–)


Sulfur content (wt%)


Specific gravity (–)


Summation of the estimated yields (–)


Reaction time or space time (min)


Temperature (°C)


Total sum of squares (–)


Weighted absolute percentage error (%)


Independent variable (–)


Response dependent variable (–)

Greek letters


Parameter in the recycle term (–)


Recycle term (–)









Gaseous product


Gas oil


Liquid product









The author appreciates helpful discussions with Ms. Samira Shirvani.


Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) under grant 94016123.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author has no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

11144_2018_1467_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1028 kb)


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PetrochemicalsIran Polymer and Petrochemical InstituteTehranIran

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